Friday, January 06, 2006

Filth Flies Feel the Heat

Commercial insectaries that produce wasps as biocontrol agents will benefit from new Agricultural Research Service (ARS) findings showing that killing fly pupae--the food source for the wasp larvae--with heat shock is an affordable alternative to irradiation.

The heat shock alternative will help insectaries meet fluctuating demand for two parasitic wasps used to control filth flies.House flies and stable flies are nuisances on livestock and poultry farms, and they transport disease-causing organisms.

Parasitic wasps released as biocontrols can reduce the need for insecticides on livestock and poultry farms.Wasp species such as Muscidifurax raptor and Spalangia cameroni lay a single egg inside a fly puparium before it hatches, and the larva feeds on the fly pupa before emerging as an adult.

But it takes one week to produce fly pupae for the parasitoids, and these live pupae only have a shelf life of two to three days.

So insectaries turned to ARS for help.Entomologist Christopher J. Geden of the ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology in Gainesville, Fla., studied fly pupae killed with gamma irradiation, cold and heat shock for their ability to produce parasitoids.

Researchers have reared parasitoids with irradiated pupae for years, but it's not practical for commercial insectaries. Previous results from freeze-killing pupae have been mixed. Heat shock killing in an oven had never been tried before.

The number of wasp progeny, male or female, emerging from pupae killed by heat shock or gamma irradiation was not significantly different from those produced on live hosts.Geden found heat-killed, irradiated and freeze-killed pupae stored in refrigerated plastic bags remain as effective for production of M. raptor as live pupae for as long as four months.

Production of S. cameroni on heat-killed and irradiated pupae was equal to parasitoid production on live pupae for up to two months of storage. After that, production declined to 63 percent of live pupae. Production of S. cameroni on freeze-killed pupae was about 75 percent of production using live pupae for eight weeks of storage but declined rapidly afterward.ARS is the U.S. Department of Agriculture\'s chief scientific research agency.


source: http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/main.htm




AGRI-INFO/JANUARY 6, 2006

TITLE: FILTH FLIES FEEL THE HEAT

ALAM BA NINYO NA NATUKLASAN NG MGA AGRI-EXPERT NA ANG TINATAWAG NA “HEAT SHOCK” SA MGA PESTE TULAD NG LANGAW AY MAITUTURING NA ALTERNATIBO SA NAKAGAWIANG PAGGAMIT NG IRRADIATION?

ANG HEAT SHOCK NA ITO AY MAKATUTULONG UMANO NG MALAKI SA MGA TINAGURIANG COMMERCIAL INSECTARIES NA MATUGUNAN ANG DEMAND SA DALAWANG PARASITIC WASP NA GINAGAMIT BILANG PANGONTROL O BIOCONTROL AGENTS LABAN SA PESTENG FILTH FLIES.

ALAM NAMAN NATIN NA ANG HOUSE FLIES AT STABLE FLIES AY MAITUTURING NA PANGGULO O NAKAKAIRITA SA LIVESTOCK AT POULTRY FARMS, AT SILA DIN ANG NAGDADALA NG MGA ORGANISMONG SANHI NG PESTE O SAKIT.

ANG PARASITIC WASPS NA GINAGAMIT BILANG BIOCONTROL AGENTS AY NAKABABABAWAS SA PANGANGAILANGAN NG INSECTICIDES SA LIVESTOCK AT POULTRY FARMS.

TINUKOY DITO NG MGA EKSPERTO ANG WASP SPECIES NA “MUSCIDIFURAX RAPTOR” AT SPALANGIA CAMERONI” NA NANGINGITLOG SA LOOB NG FLY PUPARIUM BAGO ITO MAPISA, AT SAKA KAKAININ ANG FLY PUPA BAGO ITO LUMABAS.

PINAG-ARALANG MABUTI NI ENTOMOLOGIST CHRISTOPHER GEDEN NG ARS CENTER FOR MEDICAL, AGRICULTURAL AT VETERINARY ENTOMOLOGY, ANG FLY PUPAE NA NAMATAY DAHIL SA GAMMA IRRADIATION, MAGING COLD AT HEAT SHOCK PARA SA ABILIDAD NILA NA MAKAPAG-PRODUCE NG PARASITOIDS.

NATUKLASAN NI GEDEN NA ANG PUPAE NA NAMATAY DAHIL SA INIT, IRRADIATION AT FREEZE AY MAITUTURING NA KASING BISA SA PRODUKSIYON NG M. RAPTOR BILANG LIVE PUPAE SA LOOB NG APAT NA BUWAN.

ANG PRODUKSIYON NAMAN NG S. CAMERONI SA HEAT KILLED AT IRRADIATED PUPAE AY KATUMBAS NG SA PARASITOID PRODUCTION SA LIVE PUPAE NG HANGGANG DALAWANG BUWAN NG STORAGE.

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