Monday, May 01, 2006

A Second Nematode-Foiling Gene Found in Grape Plants

Agricultural Research Service (ARS) studies on grape genetics have uncovered a second gene that helps grape plants resist root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne).

The finding came during research led by ARS plant geneticist Peter Cousins on the gene known as N that naturally protects the grape plants against the nematodes.

Cousins works at ARS' recently established Grape Genetics Research Unit (GGRU) in Geneva, N.YSpecifically, Cousins and colleagues studied a type of grape--an accession of Vitis mustangensis called DVIT1842--that fends off a new strain of root-knot nematode that is able to overcome the natural defenses of other grape rootstocks.

These aggressive nematodes are putting an economic strain on many grape growers, particularly in California.Laurie Boyden, a Cornell University doctoral student working with Cousins, made the discovery that the source of DVIT1842's resistance to nematodes wasn't just a variation of the N gene, but was a different gene altogether.

According to Boyden, this finding may make it possible to breed both of the nematode-resisting genes into the same rootstock, a strategy that could provide better protection for grapes if the two genes act in different ways or if their interaction makes them more effective.

The nematode-resistance study is one of many ongoing projects at GGRU, whose scientists work to improve grapes through characterization and deployment of genes. Other topics under investigation there include grape color, fungal diseases and the genes involved in ripening, flowering, bud break and leaf fall.

The goal of the nematode work is development and introduction of rootstocks that are both resistant to the tougher nematodes and adaptable to California viticulture, according to Cousins.The work by Cousins and his colleagues began when Geneva grape genetics research was conducted in the Plant Genetic Resources Unit.



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AGRI-INFO/MAY 1, 2006



TITLE: 2ND NEMATODE-FOILING GENE FOUND IN GRAPE PLANTS


ALAM BA NINYO NA NATUKLASAN NG MGA AGRI-EXPERT ANG IKALAWANG GENE NG GRAPE PLANTS NA MAKATUTULONG NG MALAKI SA TANIM PARA LABANAN ANG PESTENG ROOT-KNOT NEMATODES?

ITO AY NATUKLASAN SA GINAWANG PANANALIKSIK NG MGA EKSPERTO SA PANGUNGUNA NI ARS PLANT GENETICIST PETER COUSINS SA SECOND GENE NA TINAGURIANG LETRANG ā€œNā€ NA NATURAL NA NAGBIBIGAY PROTEKSIYON SA GRAPE PLANTS LABAN SA NEMATODES.

PARTIKULAR NA PINAG-ARALANG MABUTI DITO ANG ISANG URI NG GRAPE- ANG ACCESSION NG VITIS MUSTANGENSIS NA TINAGURIANG DVIT 1842, NA MAY KAKAYANANG LABANAN ANG BAGONG STRAIN NG ROOT KNOT NEMATODE.

ITINUTURING NA AGRESIBONG NEMATODE, ANG ROOT KNOT NEMATODE AY MAY KAKAYANAN NA PAHINAIN ANG NATURAL DEFENSES NG MARAMING GRAPE ROOTSTOCKS.

AYON KAY LAURIE BOYDEN, DOCTORAL STUDENT NG CORNELL UNIVERSITY NA TUMULONG KAY COUSINS, ANG RESISTANCE NG DVIT 1842 SA NEMATODE AY HINDI LAMANG VARIATION NG N GENE KUNDI ITO TALAGA AY IBANG GENE NG GRAPE PLANT.

ANG GANITONG FINDINGS, AYON PA KAY BOYDEN AY MAKATUTULONG NG MALAKI PARA POSIBLENG MAISAKATUPARAN ANG BREEDING NG KAPWA NEMATODE-RESISTING GENES SA IISANG ROOTSTOCK, ISANG STRATEHIYA NA MAKATUTULONG NG MALAKI PARA SA MAS MATINDING PROTEKSIYON SA GRAPE PLANTS KAPAG UMAAKTO ANG DALAWANG GENE SA MAGKAIBANG PARAAN O KUNG ANG KANILANG INTERACTION AY NAKATUTULONG PARA SILA AY MAGING EPEKTIBO.

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