Tuesday, June 13, 2006

Scientists Help Rust-Proof America's Soybeans

Fungicides are a key frontline defense against Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the latest fungal threat to America’s soy crop. Many of the fungicides approved for use against this exotic fungal pathogen owe their availability to the efforts of Agricultural Research Service (ARS) scientists in Urbana, Ill., and Fort Detrick, Md.

First detected in Louisiana in November 2004, the fungal disease called soybean rust has since been found in 11 other states. Two years before its arrival, though, ARS researchers Reid Frederick, Glen Hartman and Monte Miles were already busy coordinating field trials of tebuconazole, tetraconazole, myclobutanil and trifloxystrobin plus propiconazole in rust-infested regions of Zimbabwe and South America.

There, they examined fungicide timing, application methods and rates, efficacy and residual activity. That and other data expedited approval of state requests for emergency-use exemptions for the fungicides on soybeans from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, under section 18 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act.

Key findings included showing that all of the fungicides studied by the ARS scientists reduced soybean rust severity, although their effectiveness and residual activity varied. Some, for example, worked better than others when rust was severe, according to the researchers.

Frederick, a molecular biologist, is in the ARS Foreign Disease-Weed Science Research Unit at Fort Detrick. Hartman and Miles, both plant pathologists, are with the ARS Soybean/Maize Germplasm, Pathology and Genetics Research Laboratory in Urbana. Since 2003, they’ve examined more than 30 active ingredients representing both single and dual-active fungicides, according to Miles.

The researchers caution that fungicides are a short-term solution to the problem. Over the long term, the battle against soybean rust will require a combination of strategies, with disease-resistant soybean cultivars as the cornerstone.

Other ARS teams, meanwhile, are examining other aspects of fungicide use, including the influence of soybean planting dates, row spacing and maturity groups.

http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/2006/060602.htm


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AGRI-INFO/JUNE 13, 2006


TITLE: SCIENTISTS HELP RUST PROOF AMERICA’S SOYBEANS

ALAM BA NINYO NA FUNGICIDE AY MALAKI ANG PAPEL NA GINAGAMPANAN PARA LABANAN ANG MGA PANGUNAHING FUNGI LALU NA ANG SINASABING MATINDING FUNGUS NA KALABAN NG SOYBEANS NA PHAKOPSORA PACHYRIZI.

ANG NATURANG FUNGUS NA TINAGURIAN SA PANGALANG SOYBEAN RUST AY MATINDI KUNG UMATAKE SA TANIMAN NG SOYBEANS NA SIYANG DAHILAN SA PAGKALUGI NG MGA MAGSASAKA SA BUONG MUNDO.

PINAG-ARALANG MABUTI NG MGA EKSPERTO ANG EPEKTO NG MGA KEMIKAL NA ITO O FUNGICIDE PARA LABANAN ANG SOYBEAN RUST AT NAPATUNAYAN NAMAN NA TALAGANG MABISA.

NGUNIT, ANG EPEKTO AT TINATAWAG NA RESIDUAL ACTIVITY AY HINDI MAGKAKAPAREHO SA HANAY NG MGA FUNGICIDE.

LUMABAS SA PAG-AARAL NA ANG ISANG URI NG FUNGICIDE AY MAS MATINDI ANG TAMA SA MGA PESTE KESA SA IBA NA ANG TAMA NG SOYBEAN RUST AY NAPAKALUBHA.

NAGBABALA ANG MGA EKSPERTO NA BAGAMAN MABISA ANG FUNGICIDE AY HINDI DAPAT NA ITO AY ASAHAN SA PANGMATAGALAN DAHIL SA ANG FUNGICIDE AY SHORT TERM SOLUTION LAMANG SA PROBLEMA.

PARA SA PANGMATAGALANG EPEKTO, KAILANGAN DITO ANG KUMBINASYON NG STRATEHIYA KAPWA NG KEMIKAL AT DISEASE RESISTANT SOYBEAN VARIETIES.

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