Friday, June 09, 2006

Silencing Wheat and Barley Scab

A new test to find scab-resistance genes in wheat and barley seed heads uses the plants’ natural viral defense mechanism to temporarily “silence” the gene to be tested. The test is an adaptation of a technique called Virus-Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS).

Agricultural Research Service (ARS) geneticist Steven Scofield and colleagues developed the test with funds from the U.S. Wheat and Barley Scab Initiative managed by ARS. Scofield is in the ARS Crop Production and Pest Control Research Unit at West Lafayette, Ind.

Under the initiative, farmers and scientists work together to combat scab—also known as Fusarium head blight—one of the most devastating wheat and barley diseases worldwide. Currently, there are only a few wheat and barley varieties with effective levels of resistance to scab.

The test temporarily incapacitates wheat or barley genes thought to be important to scab resistance, to see if the plant’s scab resistance also disappears temporarily.

Scofield began experimenting with VIGS when he first came to ARS in 2002. With it, he found four genes key to leaf rust resistance in wheat and barley plants. He is working to adapt VIGS to find resistance genes for each major wheat and barley disease, one at a time.

Before this VIGS-based test, there was no way to assess probable genes for scab resistance other than through breeding, or by inserting them into tissue cells and then regenerating whole plants for testing.

The new test is much quicker and more efficient since it can be done shortly after a plant is infected with a virus, without waiting to grow a new plant.VIGS has been used for about 10 years. Scientists first used it with tobacco, then tomatoes, potatoes and Arabidopsis thaliana.


www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr

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AGRI-INFO/JUNE 9, 2006


TITLE: SILENCING WHEAT AND BARLEY SCAB


ALAM BA NINYO NA NATUKLASAN NG MGA AGRI-EXPERT ANG ISANG PAMAMARAAN PARA MATUKOY ANG SCAB-RESISTANCE GENES NG TRIGO AT BARLEY?

ITO AY SA PAMAMAGITAN NG PAGGAMIT NG NATURAL VIRAL DEFENSE MECHANISM NG MGA TANIM NA ITO NA NAGLALAYONG PATAHIMIKIN ANG PARTIKULAR NA PLANT GENE.

ANG NATURANG PAMAMARAAN AY HALAW SA TEKNIK NA TINAGURIANG VIRUS-INDUCED GENE SILENCING (VIGS).

SINA ARS GENETICIST STEVEN SCOFIELD AT KANYANG MGA KASAMAHAN ANG NAKATUKLAS SA NATURANG PAMAMARAAN NA PINONDOHAN NG US WHEAT AND BARLEY SCAB INITIATIVE SA PANGANGASIWA NG ARS CROP PRODUCTION AND PEST CONTROL RESEARCH UNIT.

SA ILALIM NG NATURANG INISYATIBO, NAGTULUNGAN ANG MGA MAGSASAKA AT MGA SIYENTISTA PARA MALABANAN ANG PESTENG SCAB NA KILALA RIN SA PANGALANG FUSARIUM HEAD BLIGHT.

ANG NATURANG PESTE AY ITINUTURING NA PINAKAMATINDING MAMINSALA SA MGA TANIM TULAD NG TRIGO AT BARLEY SA BUONG MUNDO.

ANG NATUKLASANG PAMAMARAAN NG GRUPO NI SCOFIELD SA TULONG NG VIGS AY NAGLALAYONG MA-INCAPACITATE ANG GENES NG WHEAT AT BARLEY NA SADYANG MAHALAGA SA SCAB RESISTANCE.

ANG VIGS AY SAMPUNG TAON NG GINAGAMIT NG TAO AT UNA ITONG GINAMIT SA TABAKO, MAGING SA KAMATIS, SINUNDAN NG PATATAS AT SA ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA.

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