Thursday, September 07, 2006

The Last Straw? Making Gas From Crop Residue

Illegal to burn and expensive to move, straw creates serious disposal problems for the grass seed industry. That’s why two Agricultural Research Service (ARS) labs are collaborating with scientists from the Laramie, Wyo., Western Research Institute to develop a small-scale gasification reactor.

The Pacific Northwest grass seed industry that provides seed for lush lawns for homes, parks and golf courses also produces millions of tons of straw every year, only a fraction of which can be used as mulch for conservation.

ARS researchers at the Forage Seed and Cereal Laboratory in Corvallis, Ore., and the Crop Conversion Science and Engineering Laboratory in Wyndmoor, Pa., are developing technology for converting that straw into synthetic gas that can be used to produce electricity or liquid fuel.

Within the prototype reactor, straw is reduced to char--small particles of carbon and residue--and converted into a mixture of vaporized gases that can be used to produce liquid, synthetic gas.The scientists believe the research will enable them eventually to develop an economically feasible method to dispose of straw because it eliminates the expense of transporting straw off property.

The technology is still undergoing trials to improve its effectiveness and economy. ARS chemical engineer Akwasi Boateng, at Wyndmoor, and plant physiologist Gary Banowetz, at Corvallis, believe that in the near future, the small-scale gasification system will provide not only an environmentally beneficial alternative to field-burning grass straw, but an economically competitive alternative to fossil fuel-derived energy.

Based on the carbon content of straw, Banowetz estimates that synthetic gas produced in the reactor could be converted into about 60 gallons of fuel per ton of straw. With 7 million tons of excess grass and cereal straw generated each year, the Pacific Northwest has the potential to produce 420 million gallons of liquid fuel.

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AGRI-INFO/SEPTEMBER 7, 2006



TITLE: MAKING GAS FROM CROP RESIDUE


ALAM BA NINYO NA MATINDING PANANALIKSIK ANG GINAGAWA NG MGA AGRI-EXPERT PARA MAKAGAWA NG SMALL-SCALE GASIFICATION REACTION PARA SA MGA NATIRANG BAHA-BAHAGI NG TANIM SA MGA LUPANG SAKAHAN?

ITO AY SAGOT NA RIN SA PROBLEMANG KINAKAHARAP NG MGA MAGSASAKA SA PAGSUNOG O KAYA AY PAGTATAPON NG MGA STRAW AT IBA PANG BAHAGI NG MGA TANIM O CROP RESIDUE NA NAIIWAN SA MGA SAKAHAN.

NABATID NA MAGING ANG MGA NAKALATAG NA MGA DAMO SA IBAT-IBANG LUGAR SA BUONG MUNDO LALU NA SA MGA RECREATIONAL AREAS TULAD NG PARKE AT MGA GOLD COURSES, AY NAGRERESULTA SA MILYUN-MILYUNG TONELADANG STRAW O MGA TANGKAY SA BAWAT TAON.

MULA SA NATURANG KARAMING CROP RESIDUE AY ILANG PORSIYENTO LAMANG DITO ANG KARANIWANG NAGAGAMIT SA MULCHING PARA MAGING PATABA SA MGA LUPANG SAKAHAN O SA MGA LUPANG HARDIN.

DAHIL DITO, NAISIP NG MGA EKSPERTO NG USDA-ARS AT NG CROP CONVERSION SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING LABORATORY ANG PAGGAWA NG ISANG CONVERSION MACHINE NA NAGLALAYONG GAWING SYNTHETIC GAS ANG WEED STRAW AT IBA PANG CROP RESIDUE NA MAAARING MAGAMIT SA PRODUKSIYON NG ELEKTRISIDAD O KAYA AY LIQUID FUEL.

SA PAMAMAGITAN NG PROTOTYPE REACTION, ANG CROP RESIDUE AY SUSUNUGIN HANGGANG SA MAGIGING MALILIIT NA CARBON AT RESIDUE AT SAKA ITO MAIKO-CONVERT BILANG VAPORIZED GAS NA MAAARING MAGAMIT BILANG LIQUID AT SYNTHETIC GAS.

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