Wednesday, May 31, 2006

Colombian Frog Believed Extinct Found Alive

Researchers exploring a Colombian mountain range found surviving members of a species of Harlequin frog believed extinct due to a killer fungus wiping out amphibian populations in Central and South America.

The discovery of what could be the last population of the painted frog (Atelopus ebenoides marinkellei) indicates the species has survived the fungus, providing hope that other species also might avoid elimination from the epidemic caused by a pathogenic fungus of unknown origin.

Professor Carlos Rocha and a team of researchers from the Pedagogical and Technological University of Boyacá - UTPC supported by Conservation International, the Darwin Initiative and the Fund for Environmental Action and Childhood made the discovery in early May in the deserts of Sarna and Toquilla in Boyacá in eastern Colombia.

The painted frog, which is found only in the deserts of Colombia’s highlands, was last seen in 1995 in the area of Siscunsi, in the same region as Boyacá. After 11 years without a sighting, scientists considered the species extinct because of a lethal skin fungus, known as chytridiomycosis, and other hazards threatening the survival of a third of all amphibian species around the world.

"The scientific importance of the finding must motivate us to adopt urgent measures toward saving the last of these amphibians, both in the wild and through captive breeding programs," said Fabio Arjona, executive director of Conservation International in Colombia. "That will require a lot of support from the local and international communities."

The painted frog is one of 110 species of a diverse group of neo-tropical amphibians that live mostly in Colombia. The country’s amphibian population is considered among the most diverse on Earth and key in the conservation efforts to protect amphibian species worldwide. So far, 42 of the 113 species of Atelopus found in the Tropical Andes Hotspot that includes parts of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela have experienced population declines of up to 50 percent.

Frogs provide innumerable ecosystem services by consuming insects and serving as indicators of overall environmental health of an ecosystem. The disappearance of amphibians could cause numerous consequences, including an increase in illnesses such as malaria due to the disappearance of amphibians that feed on mosquitoes carrying the disease. An extinction crisis among amphibians indicates drastic environmental changes caused by human impact such as deforestation and global warming.

The research was conducted as part of the Atelopus Initiative, a regional program that monitors the state of amphibian populations in the Tropical Andes Hotspot. CI will work with partners on extending Atelopus conservation initiatives into Peru and Bolivia under the Amphibian Conservation Action Plan created in 2005 as result of the 2004 Global Amphibian Assessment.


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AGRI-INFO/MAY 31, 2006



TITLE: COLOMBIAN FROG BELIEVED EXTINCT FOUND ALIVE


ALAM BA NINYO NA NATAGPUAN NG MGA EKSPERTO ANG ISANG URI NG PALAKA NA UNANG PINANINIWALAANG NAWALA NANG PARANG BULA?
ITO AY ANG HARLEQUIN FROG NA UNANG PINANINIWALAANG BIKTIMA NG EXTINCTION MATAPOS NA TAMAAN NG KILLER FUNGUS NA BUMIBIKTIMA SA AMPHIBIAN POPULATIONS.

ANG PAGKAKATUKLAS SA ITINUTURING NA HULING POPULASYON NG HARLEQUIN FROG O KILALA RIN BILANG PAINTED FROG AY PATUNAY LAMANG NA NAKALIGTAS ITO SA TAMA NG MAPAMINSAMANG FUNGUS NA HINDI MALAMAN KUNG SAAN NAGMULA.

ANG PALAKANG ITO AY HULING NAMATAAN NOONG TAONG 1995 SA SISCUNSI, NGUNIT MULI ITONG NATAGPUAN NITONG BUWAN NG MAYO NG TAONG ITO, EKSAKTONG 11 TAON MULA NANG ITO AY HULING MAKITA.

ANG GRUPO NI PROFESSOR CARLOS ROCHA AT ISANG TEAM NG MGA EKSPERTO MULA SA PEDAGOGICAL AND TECHNOLOGIAL UNIVERSITY NG BOYACA SA BANSANG COLOMBIA.

NANAWAGAN SI FABIO ARJONA, EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR NG CONSERVATION INTERNATIONAL SA COLOMBIA NA DAHIL DITO, KAILANGANG PAGTUUNAN NG PANSIN NG MGA EKSPERTO NA GUMAWA NG HAKBANG PARA HINDI NA TULUYANG MAUBOS ANG URING ITO NG PALAKA.

Tuesday, May 30, 2006

'Super Broccoli' Promises To Help Us Live Longer, Last Longer On Our Shelves

Warwick HRI, the University of Warwick's plant research Department, has created a stand at the world famous RHS Chelsea Flower Show in London this week. However the star exhibit in their garden won't be multicoloured flowers or a soothing water feature. The Warwick HRI stand will show how far scientists have reached in breeding a range of "Super Broccoli" and its wider brassica family which will: help us live longer, last longer on our shelves, and use much less pesticide and fertilizer.

The stand will have a range of plants from the brassica family, broccoli and oilseed rape being the most important commercial crops. Breeding better crops entails crossing plants which possess the best properties, usually from within the same crop (for instance restricting oneself to just cross breeding broccoli with another type of broccoli). However, this approach misses out the vast range of useful properties in the larger brassica family.

The Warwick HRI researchers are well equipped to change that situation as they have one of the largest gene banks of vegetable brassicas in the world. With over 6,000 plants in the gene bank the Warwick HRI research teams have an invaluable resource enabling them to carry out their research. This breeding work on broccoli alone is on course to transform it into a super plant in the following ways:

Environmentally friendly Super Broccoli - Researchers have identified cross breeding possibilities that will give broccoli much greater resistance to two of its greatest threats - aphids and the bacteria Xanthomonas campestris. This will vastly reduce the amount of pesticides that have to be used on broccoli. This breeding programme will probably be complete within a decade.

Longer lasting Super Broccoli - Broccoli is one of the most difficult vegetables to keep fresh. Supermarkets find this particularly annoying as most of their vegetables are brought in on a 4 day cycle whilst broccoli's feeble shelf life means it is out of phase with other vegetable deliveries as it requires its own 3 day cycle. Adding just one more day to its shelf life would make customers happier and supermarkets would be overjoyed. The researchers have already taken the first steps to cross breed broccoli with a longer shelf life and expect the first commercially available varieties to be hitting shelves (and staying longer on them......) again within a decade.

Super Broccoli makes longer lasting humans - Broccoli is a rich source of antioxidants which have a number of health properties including defending against cancers. However broccoli's short shelf life means those important antioxidants quickly break down and can lose much of their power before being consumed. The cross breeding programme creating longer shelf life will also ensure the antioxidants remain potent for longer.

Oilseed rape oils the wheels of industry - Another member of the brassica family - Oilseed rape - is playing a key role in providing biodegradable oils that can be used to manufacture a range of environmentally favourable products. However the range of special designer oils available from this plant source is limited. The Warwick HRI team have begun to experiment with expanding the range of designer oils available by cross breeding the oil seed rape with other brassicas. Being able to produce designer oils from carbon neutral vegetation is crucial to sustainable manufacturing.

Even Super Broccoli needs bodyguards - As well as a programme of cross breeding the University of Warwick stand will show a selection of companion plants that can be grown alongside broccoli. These plants will not impact on the growth of the broccoli but they act as a major diversion for pests that would otherwise attack the broccoli.


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AGRI-INFO/MAY 30, 2006



TITLE: SUPER BROCCOLI HELPS MAN LIVE LONGER, LAST LONGER ON SHELVES

ALAM BA NINYO NA NATUKLASAN NG MGA EKSPERTO ANG TINATAWAG NA SUPER BROCCOLI NA MAKATUTULONG UMANO NG MALAKI PARA SA TAO AT MAS MAHABA ANG KANYANG SHELF LIFE?

NABATID NA BATAY SA PANANALIKSIK NA GINAWA NG WARWICK HRI, PLANT RESEARCH DEPARTMENT NG UNIVERSITY OF WARWICK NA ANG SUPER BROCCOLI NA ITO AY KAILANGAN LAMANG GUMAMIT NG KAKAUNTONG PESTISIDYO.

ITO AY RESULTA NG CROSS BREEDING NG BROCCOLI PARA MAGING SUPER PLANT MATAPOS NA MATUKLASAN NA PWEDE ITONG MAGANAP PARA LABANAN ANG MGA PESTE TULAD NG APHIDS AT BACTERIA XAMTHOMONAS CAMPESTRIS.

RESULTA NG GANITONG PANANALIKSIK AY MABABAWASAN NA RIN ANG PAGGAMIT NG INSECTICIDE NA KARANIWANG GINAGAMIT SA BROCCOLI.

ANG GANITONG HAKBANG AY KATUGUNAN NA RIN SA PROBLEMANG KINAKAHARAP NA HINDI MASYADONG NAKATATAGAL SA SHELF ANG BROCCOLI.

ANG BROCCOLI AY NAPAKAYAMAN DIN SA ANTI-OXIDANTS NA NAKATUTULONG NG MALAKI SA KALUSUGAN NG TAO LALU NA AT PANLABAN ITO SA SAKIT NA KANSER.

NGUNIT ANG MAIGSING SHELF LIFE AY MAAARING MAUWI SA TULUYANG PAGKAWALA NG MGA SUSTANSIYA.

Monday, May 29, 2006

Saving sharks with magnets

Thousands of sharks could be saved from being caught and killed on fishing lines thanks to the winning entry of this year's WWF-sponsored Smart Gear competition.Every year thousands of sharks die after becoming snared on hooks set by commercial fisheries to catch fish such as tuna and swordfish.

The problem has pushed some shark species to the brink of extinction, with some populations down by 90 per cent. In addition, millions of tonnes of fish each year are wasted as unwanted bycatch — the incidental capture of non-targeted species — and hundreds of thousands of seabirds, mammals, sea turtles and other marine animals are killed through destructive fishing practices.

However, Michael Herrmann, a research associate at the US-based company Shark Defense, has won the 2006 Smart Gear competition for an innovation that addresses the problem of shark bycatch. Knowing that sharks can detect magnetic fields, Herrmann found that placing strong magnets just above the hooks on longline fishing nets can repel certain shark species.

He will receive the US$25,000 grand prize to further develop and test his winning idea.
“Solutions do exist, or can be developed, and there is no excuse for allowing this level of waste in our seas,” said WWF International's Director General James Leape.

“Smarter fishing is critical to ensuring a future for sharks, seabirds and sea turtles. Without urgent and bold legislation to reduce this critical environmental and economic problem, the waste will continue and, in the long term, risk putting the fishing industry out of business.”

Smart Gear runner-up prizes went to Chris Carey of Independent Fisheries Ltd, New Zealand, who proposed a flying scarecrow device to scare away birds from getting caught on wires attached to trawl nets, and to Kristian Zachariasssen, Faroese Fisheries Laboratory, for inventing a lighter, flexible grid for trawl nets that may allow certain fish to escape.

The International Smart Gear Competition was created by WWF-US in May 2004 to bring together partners representing fishermen, fisheries, policy and science to find solutions that will reduce the unnecessary decline of vulnerable species due to bycatch. More than 80 entries to the competition were received from 26 countries. The winners were chosen by a panel of international judges that included fishermen, researchers, engineers and fisheries managers from all over the world.

"We hope the competition will inspire managers and fishermen to look at practical solutions to reduce the problem of overfishing and declining health of oceans, which is also endangering food security in poorer countries," said Leape.

"The Smart Gear competition is an opportunity to find, reward and promote what are very often inexpensive, easy ideas that will be widely embraced by fishermen to improve fishing gears and techniques."


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AGRI-INFO/MAY 29, 2006



TITLE: SAVING SHARKS WITH MAGNETS


ALAM BA NINYO NA MERONG NAISIP NA BAGONG PARAAN ANG MGA EKSPERTO PARA MAILIGTAS SA ANUMANG KAPAHAMAKAN ANG MGA PATING SA KARAGATAN SA BUONG MUNDO?

ITO AY SA PAMAMAGITAN NG PAGGAMIT NG MAGNET NA UMANOY MAY KAKAYANAN NA ITABOY ANG MGA PATING PAPALAYO SA PAIN NA INILAAN SA PAGHULI SA MGA ISDANG TUNA AT SWORDFISH.

LUBOS NA NABAHALA ANG MGA EKSPERTO DAHIL SA UNTI-UNTING NAUUBOS ANG MGA PATING SA KARAGATAN SANHI NG HINDI SINASADYANG PAGKAKAPAIN SA MGA ITO AT ANG POPULASYON NG PATING AY BUMAGSAK NG 90 PORSIYENTO.

BUKOD SA PATING, MILYUN MILYUNG TONELADA NG MGA ISDA ANG NASASAYANG SA HINDI SINASADYANG PAGKAKAHULI SA KANILA MAGING ANG IBA PANG HAYOP TULAD NG SEABIRDS, MAMMALS, SEA TURTLES AT IBA PANG MARINE ANIMAL.

DAHIL SA BAGONG GADGET NA NAIMBENTO NI MICHAEL HERRMANN, RESEARCH ASSOCIATE NG US-BASED COMPANY SHARK DEFENSE AY MAAARI NANG MALIGTAS SA “BYCATCH” ANG MGA PATING.

DAHIL SA ANG MGA PATING AY MAY KAKAYANAN NA MAKA-DETECT NG MAGNETIC FIELDS, NATUKLASAN NI HERRMANN NA ANG PAGLALAGAY NG MALAKAS NA MAGNET SA IBABAW NG MGA HOOK O PAIN SA LONGLINE FISHING NETS AY NAKAPAGTATABOY SA MGA PATING.

ANG IMBENSIYON NI HERRMANN, AY NAGPANALO SA KANYA NG 2006 SMART GEAR COMPETITION NA MAY PREMYONG 25-LIBONG DOLYAR.

Saturday, May 27, 2006

Relaxed Management of Cattle Has Benefits

Style matters, even when managing livestock, according to Agricultural Research Service (ARS) scientists who have found that proper management of cattle helps to develop a calm herd--and leads to other benefits as well.

Recently retired animal scientist John Stuedemann and other researchers before him at ARS' J. Phil Campbell, Sr., Natural Resource Conservation Center in Watkinsville, Ga., have conducted forage research with their resident herd of Angus cattle that was first established in the 1950s.

The cattle are given “disposition scores” from finishing companies, in this case Tri-County Steer Carcass Futurity in Lewis, Iowa. Calves receive scores from 1 to 5 during each trip through the cattle chute. A score of 1 means the calf is especially docile, while a score of 5 indicates it’s extremely rambunctious.

Most of the Watkinsville cattle scores range from 1.0 to 1.9, and most are below1.5. Stuedemann’s philosophy is that because the researchers handle them so much, it’s important for the animals to be as calm as possible. Any excitable or unstable cattle are removed to lessen the risk of injury to staffers, especially student workers.

Management methods have also been modified to keep the herd relaxed. Aids that were sometimes used to restrain or hurry cattle along were removed from the Watkinsville location a long time ago, according to Stuedemann.

Cattle are more likely to go through the chutes calmly when pain is removed from the experience. This conditioning allows researchers to move the animals through the chutes for monthly weigh-ins without incident.

While calm cattle make life easier for those handling them, Tri-County also finds the health and average daily weight gain of the cattle to be excellent. In the five years of custom feeding with Tri-County, the approximately 800 head of steers and heifers posted average daily weight gains ranging from 3.1 to 4.6 pounds.

Only 30 of the animals graded “Select,” while the rest graded “Choice” or better. A total of 381 head earned the “Certified Angus Beef” labelRead more about the research in the May 2006 issue of Agricultural Research magazine, available online at: http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/may06/cattle0506.htm.

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AGRI-INFO/MAY 27, 2006



TITLE: RELAXED MANAGEMENT OF CATTLE HAS BENEFITS


ALAM BA NINYO NA ANG TAMANG PANGANGASIWA SA INYONG MGA ALAGANG HAYOP AY MERONG DAGDAG NA BENEPISYO PARA SA MGA ALAGANG HAYOP AT SA MISMONG NAG-AALAGA?

ITO ANG DAHILAN KUNG BAKIT NAGSAGAWA NG MASUSING PANANALIKSIK ANG ISANG GRUPO NG MGA EKSPERTO SA PANGUNGUNA NI RETIRED ANIMAL SCIENTIST JOHN STUEDEMANN SA FORAGE PARA SA KANILANG RESIDENT HERD NG ANGUS CATTLE.

ANG CATTLE AY BINIGYAN NG TINATAWAG NA DISPOSITION SCORES KUNG SAAN ANG MGA BAKA AY BINIGYAN NG SCORE NA 1 HANGGANG 5 SA BAWAT BIYAHE NG MGA ITO SA PAMAMAGITAN NG CATTLE CHUTE.

ANG SCORE NA 1 AY NANGANGAHULUGAN NA ANG BAKA AY ESPECIALLY DOCILE, ANG SCORE NA 5 ANG BAKA AY RAMBUNCTIOUS.

SA PILOSOPIYA NI STUEDEMANN, DAHIL SA NAPAKAGANDA NG HANDLING SA MGA BAKA MAHALAGANG MAPANATILI SILA KALMADO.

ANG ANUMANG EXCITABLE O UNSTABLE CATTLE AY INAALIS PARA MAIBSAN ANG PANGANIB NA MAGING SANHI NG PAGKASUGAT LALU NA SA MGA NAG-AALAGA.

Friday, May 26, 2006

Water Primrose: Aquatic Invader Targeted

Lovely but troublesome, a yellow-flowered plant called water primrose ranks as a prime target of Agricultural Research Service (ARS) scientists who want to squelch the spread of this water invader. Cristina Hernández at the agency’s South American Biological Control Laboratory in Hurlingham, Argentina, leads the search for weevils and other natural enemies of the invasive plant.Candidate critters that pass rigorous tests to ensure they attack only water primrose--and not someone’s prized roses, for instance--may someday be approved for use in the United States to attack the aquatic weed.

Today, water primrose (Ludwigia species) that are native to South America infest ponds, lakes, streams, rivers, canals and reservoirs on both East and West coasts of the United States--as well as some inland sites.The plant crowds out native vegetation and clogs waterways, which can lead to flooding not only of growers’ fields, orchards or vineyards, but also riparian parks, nature preserves and more.

The research, a resumption of studies begun in the 1970s, should help the health not only of waterways but of people and animals, too. That’s because water primrose presents a haven for mosquitoes that could carry West Nile virus.

The virus, a relative newcomer to the United States, can infect humans, horses, birds and other forms of life.Hernández and coinvestigators--including Willie Cabrera Walsh at Hurlingham and ARS scientists based in California--have found that some weevils noted in the earlier ARS studies still show promise as potential candidates for attacking water primrose invasions in the United States.


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AGRI-INFO/MAY 26, 2006



TITLE: WATER PRIMROSE: AQUATIC INVADER TARGETED


ALAM BA NINYO NA BAGAMAN MAGANDANG TIGNAN AY ITINUTURING NAMANG PESTE ITONG ISANG URI NG HALAMAN NA TUMUTUBO SA KATUBIGAN?

ANG PRIMROSE NA MERONG KULAY DILAW NA BULAKLAK AY MAITUTURING NA PANGUNAHING TARGET NG MGA SIYENTISTA PARA MAPUKSA ANG NATURANG ITINUTURING NA WATER INVADER.

NAIS GAMITIN NG MGA EKPERTO ANG MGA INSEKTO NA MAITUTURING NA NATURAL NA KALABAN NG NATURANG INVASIVE PLANT TULAD NG WEEVILS AT IBA PANG NATURAL ENEMIES NITO.

NAIS DING MATIYAK NG MGA EKSPERTO NA ANG UUPAKAN LAMANG AY ANG PRIMROSE PLANT AT HINDI ANG MAMAHALING ROSAS NG SINUMANG NAGPAPALAKI NG MGA CUTFLOWER.

ANG WATER PRIMROSE O KABILANG SA LUDQIGIA SPECIES AY KILALANG WATER INVADER MULA SA KANAL, LOOK, ILOG MAGING SA MGA WATER RESERVOIR.

ANG TANIM NA ITO AY NAKABABARA O SAGABAL SA DALOY NG TUBIG NA NAGIGING SANHI NG PAGBAHA HINDI LAMANG SA TANIMNAN KUNDI SA IBA PANG BAHAGI NITO.

Thursday, May 25, 2006

The potential of the dragon fruit

The dragon fruit is a native of Central and South American countries and was introduced in the Philippines in the 1900s through trading and exchange of goods by the Spaniards and the Filipinos.

One will not be surprised if new fruit discoveries are sprouting all over the fruit basket of the Philippines, Davao City. Come to think of it, people really go out of their way to find new fruits that boost the fruit industry. One of the newest fruit discoveries is the Dragon fruit (Hylocereus undatus Britt & Rose) locally called "Pithaya." Others call it Thang loy or cactus fruit. It thrives well in warm climate.

The dragon fruit is a native of Central and South American countries and was introduced in the Philippines in the 1900s through trading and exchange of goods by the Spaniards and the Filipinos. Today, the crop is grown in Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, and Taiwan. The Philippines is gaining a competitive edge through mass propagation and production in Cavite and Davao. However, Davao is dead serious in making the fruit a part of its booming fruit industry.

In a recent dragon fruit harvest festival held on 12 August 2005 in Manambulan, Tugbok, Davao City, the research personnel of the Department of Agriculture - Southern Mindanao Integrated Agricultural Research Center (DA-SMIARC) testified that the fruit showed potential and competitive advantage for the local fruit industry because of its production and economic performance. This can be attributed to the crop's growth and adaptability performance as evidenced by its big and heavy fruits that demanded higher price during the harvest festival.

During the festival, other Mindanao regions committed their support in making the fruit a part of their agricultural programs through partnership of the local government units, fruit growers and private sector, and networking in research and development, marketing and enterprise development, and processing and product development.

Based on these commitments, DA-SMIARC is now expanding its propagation and production areas to address the required planting materials of interested parties. Incidentally, the Ayala Group of Companies (AGC) handling the agribusiness sector started their share of crop production with an initial 5,000 hills. If proven to have economic returns, the AGC will expand to wider areas complete with technical and financial support.

Physical characteristicsThe fruit is round, often red colored with prominent scales. The thin rind encloses the large mass of sweetly flavored white or red pulp and small black seeds. Some varieties are pinkish or yellow called a "priceless treasure". It can be taken as fruit, flower, vegetable, health product and medicine. The crop belongs to the cacti family either as climbing cacti - epiphytic with aerial roots to cling to supporting hosts or structures or singly growing without any support.

There are two common dragon fruit varieties propagated in the country, namely the red varieties (Hylocereus undatus and Hylocereus polyrhizus) and yellow variety (Selenicereus megalanthus). The red variety (Hylocereus undatus) is favored over the yellow variety because of its unique physical features such as color, taste, and size. Bio-physical requirements and cultural managementDragon fruit grows best in areas with uniformly distributed rainfall throughout the year.

Pitaya prefers free draining soil such as the sandy to clay loam types with pH of 5.3 to 6.7 with high organic matter. However, pitaya is also grown successfully in sandy soils, avoiding water-logged areas and saline soils. Mounding is recommended for flat terrain that is subject to periodic flooding. Pitaya is shallow rooted with most roots concentrated at the top 15-30 cm soil depth. Optimum elevation is 100 to 800 above sea level preferably with 30% shade to full sun, as Pitaya grows slowly when shaded.


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AGRI-INFO/MAY 25, 2006



TITLE: THE POTENTIAL OF THE DRAGON FRUIT


ALAM BA NINYO KUNG ANO ITONG DRAGON FRUIT?

ITO AY ISANG PRUTAS NA NAGMULA PA SA CENTRAL AT SOUTH AMERICA AT UNANG IPINAKILALA SA ATING BANSA NOONG 1900S SA PAMAMAGITAN NG PALITAN NOON NG KALAKAL SA MGA ESPANYOL.

BAGAMAN MATAGAL NA ITONG IPINAKILALA SA ATIN, AY MAITUTURING PA RING ITONG BAGONG URI NG PRUTAS NA KAILANGANG PAG-IBAYUHIN ANG PAGTATAGUYOD PARA TANGKILIKIN.

ANG NATURANG PRUTAS AY TINATAWAG NA PITHAYA SA DAVAO CITY, MAAARI DIN ITONG TAWAGIN SA PANGALANG THANG LOY O CACTUS FRUIT.

BUKOD SA DAVAO CITY, ITINAGATUYOD DIN ITO PARA SA MASS PROPAGATION AT PRODUCTION SA LALAWIGAN NG CAVITE, GAYUNMAN ANG DAVAO PA RIN ANG SERYOSO NA PALAGANAPIN ANG INDUSTRIYA NG DRAGON FRUIT.

ANG DRAGON FRUIT AY HUGIS BILOG, KARANIWAN ITONG KULAY PULA AT MERONG ANIMOY KALISKIS. SA LOOB NITO AY ANG KULAY PUTI O PULANG LAMAN NA MATAMIS AT MERONG KULAY ITIM NA BUTO.

ANG IBA PANG VARIETY NITO AY KULAY ROSAS O PINKISH O DILAW NA TINATAWAG NAMANG PRICELESS TREASURE. ANG DRAGON FRUIT AY KABILANG SA CACTI O CACTUS FAMILY NGUNIT ITO AY GUMAGAPANG.

BUKOD SA PILIPINAS, ANG DRAGON FRUIT AY ITINATANIM DIN SA VIETNAM, THAILAND, MALAYSIA AT TAIWAN.

Wednesday, May 24, 2006

Precision Biochemistry Tracks DNA Damage In Fish

Like coal-mine canaries, fish DNA can serve as a measure of the biological impact of water and sediment pollution--or pollution clean-up.

That's one of the conclusions of a new study* by researchers from the Pacific Northwest Research Institute (PNRI), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, the University of Maryland and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

Research over the past several years has demonstrated the adverse effects of industrial pollutants in water and sediment on the health of fish in the lower Duwamish River. The Duwamish flows through an industrialized section of south Seattle, Wash., and in 2001 a section of the lower river was added to the Environmental Protection Agency's Superfund list because of contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), mercury and other metals, and phthalates. In previous research on Duwamish fish, PNRI used an infrared spectroscopy method to document DNA damage in the gills of English sole.

In a new joint paper, the researchers report on several biomarkers, including pollution-induced P450 enzyme changes, and on infrared spectral analysis of DNA and measurements of specific modifications to DNA from fish gills and livers using liquid and gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (LC/MS,GC/MS). Precision chemical analysis techniques at NIST allowed the researchers to identify and measure damage to adenine and guanine, specific chemical components or bases of DNA, at extraordinarily low levels--five lesions out of a 100 million bases in one case. The results correlated well with earlier research and revealed similar damage to liver DNA (more likely tied to the fish's food) and gill DNA (more probably reflecting pollutants in water).

The results suggest that these DNA lesions, and others like them, can be used as very sensitive biomarkers to provide a direct measure of the impact of contaminants on fish populations. Moreover, since natural DNA repair processes may gradually reverse the damage in the absence of further insults, these biomarkers also might be used to help assess the efficacy of pollution remediation efforts. The work was funded in part by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIH).

source: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/05/060514082623.htm


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AGRI-INFO/MAY 24, 2006



TITLE: PRECISION BIOCHEMISTRY TRACKS DNA DAMAGE IN FISH


ALAM BA NINYO NA SA PAMAMAGITAN NG PRECISION BIOCHEMISTRY AY MATUTUKOY NA KUNG GAANO KATINDI ANG DNA DAMAGE SA ISDA

ANG FISH DNA AY NAGSISILBING SUKATAN NG MGA EKSPERTO SA TINATAWAG NA BIOLOGICAL IMPACT NG TUBIG AT SEDIMENT POLLUTION O POLLUTION CLEAN UP.

ITO AY BATAY SA GINAWANG PAG-AARAL NG MGA EKSPERTO NG PACIFIC NORTHWEST RESEARCH INSTITUTE, WOODS HOLE OCEANOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION, UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND AT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY.

GUMAGAMIT ANG MGA EKSPERTO NG INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY METHOD PARA MADOKUMENTO ANG DNA DAMAGE SA HASANG NG ISDA, MAGING NG SA LIVER NITO NA GINAMITAN NAMAN NG LIQUID AT GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY KUMBINASYON NG MASS SPECTROMETRY.

BATAY SA PRECISION CHEMICAL ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES, NATUKOY NG MGA EKSPERTO AT NASUKAT ANG DAMAGE SA ADENINE AT GUANINE, ANG MGA SPECIFIC CHEMICAL COMPONENT O BASES NG DNA SA EXTRAORDINARILY LOW LEVELS.

Tuesday, May 23, 2006

Drought Major Sonctraint To Rice Production

AGRI-INFO/MAY 23, 2006



TITLE: DROUGHT, MAJOR CONSTRAINT TO RICE PRODUCTION


ALAM BA NINYO NA ANG TAGTUYOT AY PANGUNAHING HADLANG SA MAGANDANG PRODUKSIYON NG BIGAS SA MGA BANSA SA ASYA?

BATAY SA REPORT NG INTERNATIONAL RICE RESEARCH INSTITUTE (IRRI) NASA 20 PORSIYENTO NG KABUUANG PALAYAN SA ASYA AY LAGING TINATAMAAN NG TAGTUYOT.

ANG PINAKAMATINDING EHEMPLO NG EPEKTO NG DROUGHT O TAGTUYOT AY MAKIKITA SA ZIGZAG TREND SA PALAYAN SA ORISSA, ISA SA PANGUNAHING DROUGHT PRONE STATES NG EASTERN INDIA.

ANG TAGTUYOT AY NAGRERESULTA SA PRODUCTION LOSS HINDI LAMANG NG PALAY AT IBA PANG TANIM BUKOD SA PALAY.

SA TATLONG ESTADO NG INDIA, CHHATTISGARH, JHARKHAND AT ORISSA, ANG AVERAGE PRODUCTION LOSS NG PALAY SA PANAHON NG TAGTUYOT AY TINATAYANG NASA 5.4-MILLION TONS.

Monday, May 22, 2006

Improving Conservation in Potato Fields

Deep-rooted cover crops can help potato farmers prevent erosion and protect groundwater by reducing nitrate leaching. That’s one conclusion of Agricultural Research Service (ARS) scientists who developed several important tools and techniques to help growers manage their land economically and responsibly.

Heavily fertilized crops with shallow roots, like potatoes, are more susceptible to nitrate leaching, according to Jorge Delgado, a soil scientist in the ARS Soil Plant Nutrient Research Unit at Fort Collins, Colo. However, nitrogen recovery can be significantly improved--and leaching minimized--by using a deep-rooted cover crop like winter rye, malting barley or winter wheat.

Deep-rooted cover crops reduce wind erosion, sequester carbon, cycle nutrients and draw nitrate further from the soil than crops with shallow roots. Crops like winter cover rye and wheat can even be used for grazing.

Complementary potato research is being conducted in ARS labs at Prosser, Wash., and Orono, Maine.In Prosser, scientists measured how much nitrogen Brassica cover crops contributed to the soil and how much was taken up by subsequent potato crops.

Those studies found that about 30 percent of the nitrogen on the surface of the crop field was cycled back to the soil. Planting Brassica cover crops could save growers $15 to $20 per acre at current fertilizer prices.

Orono researchers modeled the influence of temperature on crop residue decomposition and nitrogen availability in order to predict the best time to apply additional fertilizer to meet the crop’s needs and potentially reduce the amount of nitrate lost to groundwater.These efforts promote "precision conservation," or management practices that incorporate elements of conservation and precision agriculture.

http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/may06/potatoes0506.htm
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AGRI-INFO/MAY 22, 2006



TITLE: IMPROVING CONSERVATION IN POTATO FIELDS


ALAM BA NINYO NA ANG DEEP ROOTED COVER CROPS AY NAKATUTULONG NG MALAKI SA MGA POTATO FARMER PARA MAIWASAN ANG EROSION NG LUPA AT BIGYAN PROTEKSIYON ANG GROUNDWATER SA PAMAMAGITAN NG PAGBAWAS SA TINATAWAG NA NITRATE LEACHING O PAGKATAGAS NG NITRATE?

NATUKLASAN NG MGA EKSPERTO NA ANG MATINDING ABONO NA IBINIGAY SA MGA TANIM NA MERONG MABABAW NA MGA UGAT TULAD NG PATATAS AY NANGANGANIB SA NITRATE LEACHING.

GAYUNMAN, INIHAYAG NI SOIL SCIENTIST JORGE DELGADO, MAAARING MAISAGAWA ANG NITROGEN RECOVERY AT MAIBSAN ANG PAGKAWALA NG NITRATE SA PAMAMAGITAN NG MGA TANIM NA MALALALIM KUNG MAG-UGAT.

ANG DEEP ROOTED COVER CROPS TULAD NG RYE, BARLEY AT WHEAT AY NAKAKABAWAS SA WIND EROSION, NATITIPON ANG CARBON, NAPAPAKINABANGAN NA MABUTI ANG MGA SUSTANSIYA SA LUPA AT NABABAWI ANG NITRATE SA LUPANG SAKAHAN KESA SA MGA TANIM NA MERON LAMANG MABABAW NA PAG-UGAT.

ANG RYE AT WHEAT AY KARANIWANG MAGAGAMIT NA SA GRAZING.

Saturday, May 20, 2006

Seed-Rotting Microbes Sought to Battle Weeds

New, integrated approaches to battling annual broadleaf weeds may enlist beneficial soil microbes that “hit” the pesky plants where it hurts--their seed banks.

These banks are reserves of thousands, even millions, of weed seeds that lie dormant beneath the soil awaiting favorable conditions to germinate, according to Joanne Chee-Sanford, a microbiologist with the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) in Urbana, Ill.

Since 2002, Chee-Sanford has been piecing together the conditions under which certain fungi and bacteria will cause decay in dormant weed seeds, killing them or diminishing their fitness. Classical biological control would call for unleashing the microbes onto a targeted weed to fight it, but Chee-Sanford has a slightly different tactic in mind.

Rather than apply microbes as biological control agents, she envisions bolstering the activity of microbes that already occur in the soils naturally, possibly using an amendment of some kind.The problem is, seedbank soils are home to many microbial species with different ecological roles to fill, notes Chee-Sanford, with the ARS Invasive Weed Management Research Unit.

Some only eat carbon and other nutrients exuded in the soil by seeds, while others use means such as powerful enzymes to breach the seed, steal its nutrients and cause decay. Sometimes, seed decay is a multimicrobe effort.In one study, for example, 99 percent of velvetleaf seeds underwent microbial decay after three months, particularly when the seeds were the only carbon available as food.

The prime decay agents--Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria, found in many soils--are known to degrade natural seed polymers. But Chee-Sanford is still trying to ascertain whether they were the initial cause of the seeds' decay, or mere contributors.

Her efforts are part of a broader program within the Urbana unit to furnish midwestern farmers with new weed-management systems that integrate biological, chemical, cultural and mechanical control methods.

source: http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/may06/weeds0506.htm
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AGRI-INFO/MAY 20, 2006



TITLE: SEED ROTTING MICROBES SOUGHT TO BATTLE WEEDS

ALAM BA NINYO NA NATUKLASAN NG MGA AGRI-EXPERT ANG ISANG URI NG MIKROBYO NA MAY KAKAYANANG KALABANIN ANG MGA PESTENG DAMO?

SA ISANG PAG-AARAL, 99 PERCENT NG VELVETLEAF SEEDS ANG SUMAILALIM SA MICROBIAL DECAY PAGKALIPAS NG TATLONG BUWAN, PARTIKULAR NA KUNG ANG MGA SEEDS NA ITO ANG SILA LAMANG ANG CARBON AVAILABLE BILANG PAGKAIN NG MGA MIKROBYO.

ANG PRIME DECAY AGENTS AY ANG BACTEROIDETES AT PROTEOBACTERIA NA KARANIWANG MATATAGPUAN SA MGA LUPANG SAKAHAN.

ANG MGA ITO AY NAPATUNAYAN NA SA KANILANG KAKAYANAN AT KILALANG KILALA PARA I-DEGRADE ANG NATURAL SEED POLYMERS.

NGUNIT SA PANIG NI MICROBIOLOGIST JOANNE CHEE-SANFORD, KAILANGAN PA NILANG MATIYAK KUNG ANG MGA MIKROBYONG ITO ANG PANGUNAHING SANHI NG SEEDS DECAY O KAYA AY MGA SALING PUSA LANG SILA.

SA KATUNAYAN MULA PA NOONG 2002, AY SINIMULAN NI CHEE-SANFORD ANG PAGSUSURI SA BAWAT KUNDISYUNES KUNG PAANO NABUBULOK NG MGA FUNGI AT BACTERIA ANG DORMANT WEED SEEDS.

Friday, May 19, 2006

Sugpo successfully raised in marine pens

A technology breakthrough has been achieved yesterday here in this sleepy and rustic municipality in the Visayas with the bountiful harvest of tiger prawn or Penaeus monodon raised experimentally by the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) in marine fishpens.

Known more by the locals as sugpo, P. monodon are usually cultured in brackishwater fishponds along coastal areas particularly in Bacolod, Capiz, and Iloilo in the Visayas and Bulacan, Pampanga and Quezon province in Luzon.

BFAR Director Malcolm I. Sarmiento, Jr. said the research on the culture of sugpo in marine enclosures was conducted to test the technical feasibility and economic viability of raising P. monodon in this environment.

“This is an initiative to develop new low-cost technology to produce more fish and aquatic products in line with the government twin goals of expansion of production areas to have more fish supply for the population and lessen production cost”, he said.

In his message after the ceremonial harvest, Sarmiento said that the success of this experiment will revolutionize the country’s shrimp industry. “We have a good thing going on here. Tiger shrimp farming is no longer for the rich. Everybody, even the poorest of the poor could now venture into this industry”, he announced.

However, he warns that we must not abuse the environment as nature has a way of getting back. “We should not exceed the carrying capacity of the area. BFAR will be working in collaboration with the LGUs to set appropriate guidelines, zoning and control before the commercialization of this technology.

We must ensure that this will be sustainable and will go on and on”, Sarmiento said. The research is meant to be a part of the proposed 5-year development roadmap for the shrimp industry which aims to revive the once flourishing sugpo industry which reached its peak in the late ‘80s averaging some 80T metric tons production.

With only around 35T metric tons production today, a shrimp roadmap is being drafted and finalized in collaboration with the stakeholders to cover strategies that will address the whole gamut of the industry including disease control, marketing and credit, post-harvest and introduction of new technologies and species among others, Director Sarmiento said.

Dionisio de la Pena, BFAR regional director for Region 7, Cebu City, and chief implementer of the project disclosed that the experiment used 9 fishpens measuring 3m 3m x 3.5m installed in the marine waters of Calape Bay Panggangan Island in Bohol.

Here, sugpo post larvae (PL 18 – 20) were stocked and reared to marketable size for 188 days or for a six month period. Water quality monitoring which included pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature and salinity was done twice daily, dela Pena said. Feeding was done using commercial shrimp feeds.

Prior to the stocking in the pens, the post larvae were nursed in fishponds for 45 days, the BFAR 7 director revealed.Initial results showed that among the three stocking densities – 10/m2, 20/m2 and 30/m2 - the stocking density of 20 post larvae per one square meter gave the most promising results with 76 percent survival rate and 1.7: 1 food conversion ratio or FCR.

This means that a fish pen measuring 3 meters by 3 meters with a depth of 3.5 meters could produce almost 4 kilos of marketable high-value shrimps or 4.4 metric tons per hectare says Mario Ruinata, project leader of the experiment.

Compared to tiger shrimps reared in fishponds, production is almost the same but net profit is higher due to big savings in electricity, equipment and other water management cost.

Director Sarmiento disclosed that the experiment was initially in collaboration with Bonjie Aniag of Dawis, Bohol but because of some administrative problems, BFAR proceeded on its own to complete the project in Calape, Bohol.

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AGRI-INFO/MAY 19, 2006



TITLE: SUGPO SUCCESSFULLY RAISED IN MARINE PENS


ALAM BA NINYO NA NAGING MATAGUMPAY ANG PAG-AALAGA, PAGPAPALAKI AT PAGPAPARAMI NG SUGPO O TIGER PRAWN SA MARINES PENS SA CALAPE, BOHOL?

ANG SUGPO AY KARANIWANG KINO-CULTURE SA BRACKISHWATER FISHPOND SA BAYBAYIN NG BACOLOD, CAPIZ, ILOILO, BULACAN, PAMPANGA, AT QUEZON.

NGUNIT ITO ANG KAUNA-UNAHANG NAISAKATUPARAN ITO SA MARINE FISHPENS PARA MAPAG-ARALANG MABUTI ANG POSIBILIDAD NA MAGAWA ITO KAAKIBAT ANG TECHNICAL NA PAMAMARAAN NA MAKATUTULONG PARA HINDI MAKABIGAT SA MAMAMAYAN.

DAHIL DITO, LALUNG SUMIGLA ANG PAG-ASA NG KARAMIHAN NA ANG SUGPO AY HINDI NA LAMANG PAGKAIN NG MAYAMAN KUNDI MAGIGING NORMAL NA RIN TIONG PAGKAIN NG ATING MGA NAGHIIHIRAP NA MAMAMAYAN.

GAYUNMAN, NAGBABALA SI BFAR DIRECTOR MALCOLM SARMIENTO NA WAG AABUSUHIN ANG KAPALIGIRAN LALU NA ANG KARAGATAN SA PANGAMBANG BUMALIK ITO SA TAO.

ANG BAGONG TUKLAS NA PAMAMARAAN AY MAKATUTULONG NG MALAKI PARA LALU PANG MAPAUNLAD ANG SUGPUAN SA ATING BANSA.

Thursday, May 18, 2006

BFAR successfully breeds maliputo in captivity

A major scientific breakthrough in aquaculture has been achieved here in the National Fisheries Biological Center (NFBC), a research and extension facility of the Department of Agriculture – Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources.

BFAR Director Malcolm I. Sarmiento, Jr., said that the breakthrough involved the spawning of maliputo, a very expensive fish which once abound Lake Taal. A visibly elated fisheries director announced that finally lady luck smiles at BFAR – maliputo, known also as talakitok (Caranx ignobilis) when caught in marine waters, finally was induced to spawn over the weekend at the research facility.

“This is a big one, as this is definitely a first in the country if not the world” Sarmiento said, noting that it took BFAR more than 10 years in perfecting the breeding technology.“What is so exciting about this development is that it came almost immediately after another technological breakthrough in shrimp farming”, Sarmiento quipped.

He said that sugpo or Peneaus monodon can now be cultured in marine fish pens making sugpo culture more economically feasible even to ordinary fishermen as proven and field-tested by BFAR technologists in Region 7. Fine tuning of the experiments are currently undertaken in Calape, Bohol, he said.

Ma. Theresa M. Mutia, who heads the team of aquaculturists responsible for the success in breeding maliputo said that the spawning proves once and for all that breeding this very expensive fish in captivity is attainable. She explained that the team was able to develop a method of inducing natural spawning in the matured fish which are very difficult to handle owing to its sensitive nature.

The lack of scales in the fish makes it very sensitive to hormonal injection and the slightest removal from the water may also cause sudden death.As of press time, the fertilized eggs released by the induced fish had already hatched and the surviving 5-day old fry are doing fine in the BFAR nursery.

Catadromous fishLike milkfish or bangos, maliputo is catadromous, meaning it breeds and spawns in estuarine waters (a mixture of marine and freshwater found in river mouths and mangroves) and goes upstream to seek for freshwater to grow into adulthood. In Batangas, maliputo spawns in Balayan Bay and the fingerlings migrate to Taal Lake via the Pansipit River.

There, the fish grow to up to 3 kilos and are priced up to P500 per kilo. Maliputo is now fast becoming a rarity in Batangas and in other top restaurants and hotels in Manila owing to decreasing catch in the lake and the scarcity of fingerlings caught in the wild.

Once the breeding protocol of maliputo is established, BFAR foresees a remarkable increase in the production of this species as fingerlings could already be made available year round. Currently, local pond growers rely only on fingerlings caught in the wild which is highly seasonal and limited. The maliputo project is part of BFAR’s strategy to broaden its aquaculture base in support of the President Arroyo’s 10-point agenda of increasing food production for food security, Sarmiento said.

Experimental runsAfter many attempts to breed the maliputo in captivity in Botong, finally two sets of breeders had successfully spawned midnight of April 20, this year. The induced spawning took place 28 hours after the matured fish were injected with hormones. As seen under the microscope, the eggs started hatching 16 hours later and the developing larvae fed on its yolk in the next 3 days.BFAR continues to monitor the developments of the newly-hatched fry. Mutia said that there are many more factors that need to be addressed such as the water quality of the marine water used in spawning and egg hatching; the development of feeds for the developing larvae; the temperature and salinity requirements, among others.Some of the maliputo fry had been sent to the National Integrated Fisheries Technology Development Center in Dagupan City for further studies.
Delectable fishMaliputo is comparable in taste and texture to other white-fleshed marine fish like lapu-lapu, pompano and maya-maya. This is usually served in high-brow restaurants and hotels steamed-cook and garnished with various herbs and spices. Caught alive, caranx are much sought after by the Japanese and Chinese restaurants here and abroad, making it another export winner for the country.

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AGRI-INFO/MAY 18, 2006



TITLE: BFAR BREEDS MALIPUTO


ALAM BA NINYO NA NAGAWANG MAISAILALIM SA BREEDING ANG ISANG MAITUTURING NA NAPAKAMAHAL NA ISDA – ANG MALIPUTO FISH?

PINANGUNAHAN NG BUREAU OF FISHERIES AND AQUATIC RESOURCES ANG MASUSING PAG-AARAL AT NAGBUNGA ANG GANITONG MGA PAGSISIKAP NANG MATAGUMPAY NA MA-BREED ANG MALIPUTO O KILALA BILANG TALAKITOK NA UNANG NAKUHA SA LAKE TAAL.

AYON KAY BFAR DIRECTOR MALCOLM SARMIENTO, KAILANGAN NILANG GUMUGOL NG SAMPUNG TAON PARA LAMANG MA-PERFECT ANG BREEDING TECHNOLOGY SA ISDA LALU NA SA TALAKITOK.

SA PANIG NAMAN NI MA. THERESA MUTIA, ANG PINUNO NG TEAM NG MGA AQUACULTURIST NA SILANG NASA LIKOD NG MATAGUMPAY NA BREEDING SA MALIPUTO, NAPATUNAYAN NILA NA MAAARI PALANG MA-BREED ANG ISDANG ITO IN CAPTIVITY.

MAGAWANG MAISAKATUPARAN NG MGA EKSPERTO ANG ISANG PAMAMARAAN PARA MA-INDUCE ANG TINATAWAG NA NATURAL SPAWNING SA MATURED FISH NA SADYANG NAPAKAHIRAP NA MAPANGALAGAANG MABUTI.

ANG KAKULANGAN NG KALISKIS SA KATAWAN ANG DAHILAN KUNG BAKIT SENSITIBO ANG TALAKITOK SA HORMONAL INJECTION AT ANG BAHAGYANG PAG-ALIS NITO SA TUBIG AY MAAARING IKAMATAY NITO.

ANG FERTILIZED EGGS MULA SA INDUCED FISH AY NAPISAAN NA AT NABUBUHAY PA RIN ANG BREEDED FRY SA BFAR NURSERY.

Wednesday, May 17, 2006

EU develops robot-like insects

European Union scientists say they've succeeded in controlling cockroaches by using insbots -- insect-like mobile robots slightly larger than a thumbnail.
And that success, said the Paris-based researchers, hints at a future in which we can interact and communicate with many different kinds of animals.

Developed under the European Commission's Future and Emerging Technologies initiative, the insbots are fitted with motors, wheels, rechargeable battery, computer processors, a light-sensing camera and an array of infrared proximity sensors.

When dropped into a small experimental area with a maze of curved walls, the robots move, turn, stop and navigate by avoiding the walls, obstacles or each other. When placed with cockroaches, the robots quickly adapt their behavior by mimicking the animals' movements. Coated with pheromones taken from roaches, the infiltrator robots even fool the insects into thinking they are real creatures.

The autonomous insbots call on specially developed algorithms to react to signals and responses from individual insects. That, say the scientists, results in a chain action or reaction between the artificial and natural agents -- a two-way interaction that is unique and very promising for sciences such as biology and robotics.


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AGRI-INFO/MAY 17, 2006



TITLE: EU DEVELOPS ROBOT-LIKE INSECTS


ALAM BA NINYO NA NAKAGAWA NG INSEKTONG ROBOT ANG MGA SIYENTISTA?

ITO AY MAKATUTULONG LABAN SA PAGSAWATA SA MGA MAPAMINSALANG INSEKTO NA HINDI NA KAILANGANG GUMAMIT NG NAKALALASONG KEMIKAL.

AYON SA EUROPEAN UNION SCIENTISTS ANG INSEKTONG ROBOT NA ITO AY TINAGURIANG INSBOTS – INSECT LIKE MOBILE ROBOTS NA BAHAGYANG MAS MALAKI NG KONTI SA KUKO NG ATING HINLALAKI.

ANG GANITONG DEVELOPMENT, AYON SA MGA EKSPERTO AY ISA RING PARAAN PARA MAGKAROON NG PAGKAKATAON ANG TAO NA MAKIPAG-KOMUNIKASYON SA MGA INSEKTO.

NAISAKATUPARAN NG EUROPEAN COMMISSION’S FUTURE AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES ANG INSBOTS NA ITO NA MERONG MALILIIT NA MOTORS, MGA GULONG, RECHARGEABLE BATTERY, COMPUTER PROCESSORS, LIGHT-SENSING CAMERA AT ARRAY NG INFRARED PROXIMITY SENSORS.

KAPAG ITO AY IBINABA SA ISANG MALIIT NA LUGAR, MAY KAKAYANAN NITONG KUMILOS NG PARANG ISANG INSEKTO, MABILIS UMIKOT, TITIGIL AT MAY KAKAYANANG MAG-NAVIGATE MAG-ISA NANG HINDI NABABANGGA SA ANUMANG BAGAY O KAYA AY SA MGA INSEKTO.

KAPAG NAILAGAY ITO KASAMA ANG MGA INSEKTO TULAD NG IPIS, NAKUKUHA NITO AGAD ANG BEHAVIOR NG INSEKTO SA PAMAMAGITAN NG PAG-KOPYA SA KILOS AT PAG-UUGALI NG MGA ITO.

TAGLAY ANG PHEROMONE BILANG ATTRACTANT, NAGAGAWANG ILIGAW NG INFILTRATOR ROBOT NA ITO ANG MGA INSEKTO HANGGANG SA MALAGAY SA BITAG.

Tuesday, May 16, 2006

Right Time and Method of Harvesting

AGRI-INFO/MAY 16, 2006



TITLE: RIGHT TIME AND METHOD OF HARVESTING

AYON SA MGA MANANALIKSIK SA PHILRICE, ANG TAMANG PANAHON NG PAG-AANI AY ISANG PARAAN UPANG MAGING MAGANDA ANG KALIDAD NG BIGAS. ANG MAAGA O HULING PAG-AANI AY PAREHONG HINDI MAGANDA ANG MAIDUDULOT SA BIGAS NA MAAANI. MAPUPULBOS ANG MGA BUTIL KUNG MAAGA ANG PAG-AANI AT MASOSOBRAHAN NAMAN NG TUYO AT MADUDUROG ANG MGA ITO KUNG HULI NA ANG PAG-AANI.

ANIHIN ANG PALAY KUNG 80 HANGGANG 85% NG MGA BUTIL SA UHAY AY HINOG NA. MAAARI RIN ITONG MALAMAN SA PAMAMAGITAN NG PAGHATI SA UHAY SA LIMANG BAHAGI. KUNG ANG MGA BUTIL SA APAT NA BAHAGI MULA SA ITAAS NG UHAY AY MALINAW ANG KULAY AT MATIGAS, MAAARI NA ITONG ANIHIN.


NAKABABAWAS DIN SA KITA ANG MALING PARAAN NG PAG-ANI KUNG KAYA’T MAHALAGANG MALAMAN ANG MGA ITO. IGSIHAN LAMANG ANG PUTOL SA UHAY KUNG DE-MAKINANG PANGIIK ANG GAGAMITIN AT HABAAN NAMAN KUNG HAMPASAN.

SUBALIT BAGO MAG-ANI ALALAHANIN ANG MGA DAPAT GAWIN TULAD NG PAGPAPATUYO SA BUKID. MAS MABILIS AT MAS MADALI ANG PAG-AANI KUNG TUYO ANG BUKID LALO NA KUNG GAGAMIT NG MAKINA.

GAYUNDIN, MAGING MAS MAGANDA ANG KALIDAD NG PALAY. MAIIWASAN DIN ANG PAGKABASA NG MGA BUTIL O MATAAS NA HALUMIGMIG NA SIYANG NAKAKASIRA SA PALAY KUNG TUYO ANG BUKID BAGO UMANI. PATUYUIN ANG BUKID 10 HANGGANG 14 NA ARAW BAGO MAG-ANI.

KAILANGAN DING MAY SAPAT NA BILANG NG TAONG MAG-AANI UPANG MAANI ANG MGA BUTIL SA TAKDANG ARAW. IWASANG IWANAN SA BUKID ANG PALAY NANG MAHIGIT SA ISANG ARAW UPANG DI MASOBRAHAN ANG PAGKATUYO NG NASA IBABAW NG BUNTON.

PARA SA KARAGDAGANG IMPORMASYON TUNGKOL DITO, SUMANGGUNI SA PHILIPPINE RICE RESEARCH INSTITUTE O PHILRICE, MALIGAYA, SCIENCE CITY OF MUÑOZ, NUEVA ECIJA SA TELEPONO BILANG (044) 456-0285 LOC 308 O 310.

PARA SA MGA SMART SUBSCRIBERS, MAAARI RING ITEXT ANG INYONG MGA KATANUNGAN SA FARMERS’ CALL CENTER. I-TYPE ANG PALAYINFORICETANONG AT I-SEND SA 7007423.

Monday, May 15, 2006

Metalworking Lube From Soy Oil

A biodegradable metalworking fluid derived from soybean oil is earning high marks in trials by Alcoa, Inc., a global supplier of primary and fabricated aluminum products.

The Pittsburgh-based company is conducting the trials under a five-year, cooperative research and development agreement involving a team led by chemist Sevim Erhan at the Agricultural Research Service's (ARS) National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research in Peoria, Ill.

The partnership began in 2001 when Alcoa technical consultant Ronald Reich contacted the ARS team about the feasibility of developing metalworking fluids from biobased resources rather than petroleum, which is nonrenewable.

The fluids are critical to Alcoa's hot and cold flat-rolling operations, which produce aluminum sheets for everything from beer cans to aircraft-wing panels.Alcoa sought a biobased formulation that readily breaks down in the environment and comes from a domestic resource, such as oilseed crops.

Furthermore, the method for producing it had to be economic and nonpolluting. And, of course, the biobased fluid had to meet all industry criteria for safety and performance.The ARS team's first step was to examine the chemical structures that give mineral-oil-based metalworking fluids their functional properties. Then they had to keep those observations in mind in making a biobased equivalent, which they did using modified soy oil and antioxidants for oxidative stability.

According to Erhan, who leads the ARS center\'s Food and Industrial Oil Research Unit, they chose soy oil because it\'s plentiful, home-grown and chemically versatile to work with.

After evaluating several soy-based formulations, Alcoa chose one for a first round of tests at its aluminum-continuous casting plant in Reno, Nev. Operators there who evaluated the formulation were so pleased, according to Reich, they promptly substituted it for their synthetic fluids.

The soy-based formulation also performed well this past December in large-scale trials involving a reversing-mill process at Alcoa\'s Lancaster, Penn., plant.

source: http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/may06/lube0506.htm
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AGRI-INFO/MAY 15, 2006



TITLE: METALWORKING LUBE FROM SOY OIL


ALAM BA NINYO NA NATUKLASAN NG MGA AGRI-EXPERT ANG TINATAWAG NA “BIODEGRADABLE METALWORKING FLUID” NA KINUHA MULA SA SOYBEAN OIL?

SA KASALUKUYAN AY ISINASAILALIM SA TRIALS ANG NATURANG BAGONG TUKLAS NA PRODUKTO SA ILALIM NG LIMANG TAONG PANANALIKSIK TUNGKOL DITO.

SINIMULAN ANG GANITONG PAG-AARAL NOON PANG 2001 SA PAMAMAGITAN NG MGA EKSPERTO SA AMERIKA KAUGNAY NG POSIBILIDAD NA MAGKAROON NG METALWORKING FLUIDS MULA SA BIOBASED RESOURCES KESA SA PETROLEUM.

ANG FLUIDS NA ITO AY SADYANG KAILANGAN PARA SA HOT AND COLD FLAT-ROLLING OPERATIONS NA NAKAKAPAG-PREDUCE NG ALUMINUM SHEETS PARA GAWING BEER CANS HANGGANG SA PAKPAK NG EROPLANO.

Saturday, May 13, 2006

New Cotton Gin Technologies Combine for Big Savings

Two new machines to improve cotton lint cleaning have been developed by the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) to help cotton ginners avoid the loss of good fiber during processing.Most cotton is currently processed with the same machine sequence, regardless of its specific needs--meaning good fiber is usually wasted as a result.

That’s why W. Stanley Anthony, a recently retired ARS agricultural engineer in Stoneville, Miss., developed the new lint-cleaning machines.The ARS Cotton Ginning Research Unit in Stoneville, where Stanley worked, is committed to helping solve problems facing domestic gins and give them a competitive edge.

The United States is a major producer of cotton, supplying about 20 percent of world output, but the ginning industry has faced many challenges in recent years. Although U.S. gins process more cotton now than they did a quarter century ago, the number of gins operating in the United States has declined from 2,254 in 1980 to 896 in 2004.

One of the new lint cleaners is called a dual-saw cleaner because it consists of a standard, saw-type lint cleaner with an added secondary saw that prevents loss of longer fibers ejected by the primary cleaning saw. This dual-saw cleaner retains about 6 pounds more good fiber per bale than a standard lint cleaner, with no significant difference in fiber quality.

Another versatile, patented cleaner combines a modified cylinder cleaner normally used for seed cotton with one or more lint cleaner saws, plus a secondary saw to prevent fiber loss. Several models are available, based on the needs of the industry, and the invention can also be used on other fibers.

It prevents good fiber from being ejected with leaf, stick and stem particles, seed coat fragments and other trash that must be removed. If growers were to have their raw cotton ginned using the new technology, they could typically expect to earn $3 to $6 more per bale.

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AGRI-INFO/MAY 13, 2006



TITLE: NEW COTTON GIN TECHNOLOGIES COMBINE FOR BIG SAVINGS


ALAM BA NINYO NA NAGAWANG MAISAKATUPARAN NG MGA AGRI-EXPERT ANG DALAWANG BAGONG MAKINA PARA MAPAGANDA PA ANG COTTON LINT CLEANING PARA MAKATULONG NG MALAKI SA COTTON GINNERS PARA MAIWASAN ANG PAGKAWALA NG GOOD FIBER SA PANAHON NG PROCESSING?

KARANIWAN ANG BULAK AY ISINASAILALIM SA PROSESO SA PAMAMAGITAN NG KATULAD NA MACHINE SEQUENCE, REGARDLESS KUNG ANO MAN ANG TINUTUKOY NA MGA PANGANGAILANGAN .

ITO AY NANGANGAHULUGAN NA ANG GOOD FIBER AY KARANIWANG NABABASURA BILANG RESULTA NG GANITONG PROSESO, ITO ANG DAHILAN KUNG BAKIT ISINAKATUPARAN NI ARS RETIRED AGRICULTURAL ENGINEER W. STANLEY ANTHONY ANG BAGONG LINT-CLEANING MACHINES.

ANG ESTADOS UNIDOS AY NANGUNGUNANG PRODUCER NG BULAK, MGA 20 PORSIYENTO NG KABUUANG WORLD OUTPUT, NGUNIT HINDI MAITANGGI ANG KATOTOHANAN NA ANG GINNING INDUSTRY AY NAHAHARAP SA NAPAKARAMING HAMON SA MGA NAKALIPAS NA TAON.

ISA SA MGA BAGONG LINT CLEANERS NA ITO AY TINATAWAG NA “DUAL-SAW CLEANER”, TAGLAY NITO ANG STANDARD, SAW-TYPE LINT CLEANER NA MERONG SECONDARY SAW AT MAKAKAIWAS SA PAGKAWALA NG MAS MAHABANG FIBER NA NAI-IEJECT NG PRIMARY CLEANING SAW.

ANG ISA PANG CLEANER, AY ANG KUMBINASYON NG MODIFIED CYLINDER CLEANER NA GINAGAMIT SA SEED COTTON AT ANG ISA O HIGIT PANG LINT CLEANER SAWS, DAGDAG PA DITO ANG SECONDARY SAW PARA MAIWASN ANG FIBER LOSS.

Friday, May 12, 2006

Sowing Clover Mats to Shelter Weed Seed Eaters

ARS News ServiceAgricultural An ecologist with the Agricultural Research Service in Urbana, Ill., is experimenting with a novel method for enlisting nature's seed-eaters -- birds, rodents and insects, in this case -- to help fight giant ragweed, velvetleaf and giant foxtail, all major pests of Midwestern corn and soybean crops.

Adam Davis' approach is to create a natural ground cover of red clover in farm fields so that the small critters will spend more time foraging for the weeds' energy-rich seeds and less time dodging hawks or other sharp-eyed predators.

If creating such a haven for seed foragers sounds far-fetched, consider this: A single female cricket will eat up to 50 foxtail seeds a day. Mice and ground squirrels eat even more, according to Davis, at the ARS Invasive Weeds Management Research Unit.

Using wire cages baited with seed, along with computer modeling, Davis is compiling data to estimate the impact of small animals' seed foraging on annual weed populations in wheat fields where the clover covers are used. He is also comparing wheat-clover fields with clover-free corn and soybean crops.

In another project, Davis is conducting field surveys of weed-seed concentrations on soil surfaces, in cracks, and on upright plants during harvest. He plans on furnishing information gleaned from the surveys to agricultural engineers who can build what Davis calls a "weed-seed-predator combine kit."

As he envisions it, the kit would include a vacuum head and special hammers for sucking up, crushing and spitting out destroyed weed seeds as the combine moves through a field harvesting the crop.

Developed commercially, the kit could prove especially useful to organic farmers, who rank weeds as their top production problem, according to Davis.

source: http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/may06/weeds0506.htm

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AGRI-INFO/MAY 12, 2006


TITLE: SOWING CLOVER MATS TO SHELTER WEED SEED EATERS


ALAM BA NINYO NA ISINASAILALIM NGAYON SA MASUSING PAG-AARAL ANG ISANG PAMAMARAAN PARA MABIGYAN NG SAPAT NA PAG-AALAGA ANG MGA TINAGURIANG SEED EATERS LALU NA ANG MGA BUTU-BUTO NG DAMO O WEED SEEDS?

KABILANG SA MGA WEED SEED EATERS NA ITO AY ANG MGA IBON, MGA DAGANG BUKID, AT INSEKTO, NA SADYANG NAKATUTULONG NG MALAKI PARA MALABANAN ANG MGA PESTENG DAMO TULAD NG GIANT RAGWEED, VELVETLEAF AT GIANT FOXTAIL.

NAIS NI ADAM DAVIS NA MAGKAROON NG TINATAWAG NA NATURAL GROUND COVER NG RED CLOVER SA MGA LUPANG SAKAHAN SA LAYUNING TUMAGAL PA ANG FORAGING NA GINAGAWA NG MGA INSEKTO TULAD NG MALILIIT NA CRITTERS SA MGA MASUSTANSIYANG WEED SEEDS.

NABATID NA ANG ISANG FEMALE CRICKET AY MAAARING MAKAKAIN NG HANGGANG 50 FOXTAIL SEEDS SA BAWAT ARAW, AT MAS MARAMING NAKAKAIN DITO, AYON PA KAY DAVIS, ANG MGA DAGANG BUKID AT GROUND SQUIRRELS.

SA PAMAMAGITAN NG PAGGAMIT NG WIRE CAGES NA MERONG NAKAKABIT NA SEED KAAKIBAT ANG COMPUTER MODELLING, NAIS NI DAVIS NA MAKAPAG-COMPILE NG MGA DATA PARA MATAYA ANG IMPACT NG SEED FORAGING NG MALILIIT NA MGA HAYOP.

INIHAHANDA RIN NITO ANG WHEAT-CLOVER FIELDS SA PAMAMAGITAN NG CLOVER-FREE CORN AT SOYBEAN CROPS.

Thursday, May 11, 2006

Studying Nutrient Deficiency in Rice

AGRI-INFO/MAY 11, 2006


TITLE: PROTECTING RICE FROM NUTRIENT DEFICIENCY

ALAM MO BA KUNG ANONG SUSTANSIYA ANG KULANG SA IYONG PALAY? MINSAN, NAGKAKAPAREHO ANG MGA SINTOMAS SA KAKULANGAN NG SUSTANSIYA SA PALAY. ITO ANG NAGIGING DAHILAN KUNG BAKIT HINDI NATUTUGUNAN NG HUSTO ANG MGA KAKULANGANG ITO.

NGAYON, MAY MGA SINTOMAS NANG TINUKOY ANG MGA EKSPERTO NA PWEDENG GAWING BASEHAN UPANG MALAMAN ANG KULANG NA SUTANSIYA NG HALAMAN.
KADALASAN, NAGIGING BANSOT AT KAKAUNTI O MAHINANG MAGSUWI ANG PALAY KUNG KULANG SA MGA PANGUNAHING SUSTANSIYA TULAD NG NITROHENO, POSPORO AT POTASYO ANG HALAMAN.

NGUNIT BUKOD DITO, MAY MGA IBA PANG SINTOMAS NA MAHALAGANG MALAMAN UPANG MATUKOY NG MABUTI ANG KULANG NA SUSTANSIYA. HALIMBAWA, ANG KAKULANGAN SA NITROHENO AY NAGDUDULOT DIN NG MALILIIT, PAYAT, TUWID AT NANINILAW-NILAW HANGGANG MAMULA-MULA O KULAY KALAWANG NA DAHON. ANG MGA NAUNANG DAHON DIN AY NAGKUKULAY DAYAMI AT NAMAMATAY.

KUNG KULANG SA POSPORO, ANG MGA DAHON AY MALILIIT, PAYAT AT TUWID SUBALIT NAGIGING MATINGKAD ANG PAGKABERDE. ANG MGA MURANG DAHON AY MUKHANG NORMAL PERO ANG MATATANDA O LUMANG DAHON AY NAGKUKULAY KAPE AT NAMAMATAY. MALIBAN DITO, TUWID ANG UHAY NG MGA PALAY NA KULANG SA SUSTANSIYANG ITO.

KULANG SA POTASYO ANG PALAY KUNG ANG MGA DAHON SA IBABANG BAHAGI NITO AY KULAY MURANG BERDE PAGKATAPOS AY NANINILAW AT NAGIGING KULAY KAPE. ANG PANINILAW AY MULA SA IBABA NG DAHON PAITAAS. MALIBAN DITO ANG MGA DAHON SA IBABANG BAHAGI AY NABABALI AT NAGKAKAROON NG DILAW NA GUHIT SA MGA UGAT NITO O KAYA’Y NAGKUKULAY-KAPE ANG IBA’T-IBANG BAHAGI NG DAHON.

KUNG ANG PUNO AT GITNANG BAHAGI NG MURANG DAHON AY NANINILAW SAMANTALANG ANG MGA LUMANG DAHON AY KULAY KALAWANG, ANG HALAMAN AY KULANG SA ZINC. HINDI RIN PANTAY-PANTAY ANG PAGLAKI NG PALAY KUNG KULANG SA SUSTANSIYANG ITO.

ANG MGA PALAY SA MATATAAS NA BAHAGI NG BUKID AY MAS MAGANDA ANG TUBO KAYSA SA MGA NASA MABABANG LUGAR. SA KABILANG DAKO KUNG ANG MGA BAGONG DAHON AY MALILIIT AT NANINILAW, IPINAPAHIWATIG NITO NA KULANG SA SULFUR ANG PALAY.

PARA SA KARAGDAGANG IMPORMASYON TUNGKOL SA DITO, SUMULAT O MAKIPAG-UGNAYAN SA PHILIPPINE RICE RESEARCH INSTITUTE O PHILRICE, MALIGAYA, SCIENCE CITY OF MUÑOZ, NUEVA ECIJA SA TELEPONO BILANG (044) 456-0285 LOC 402. MAAARI RING ITEXT ANG INYONG MGA KATANUNGAN SA FARMERS’ CALL CENTER. I-TYPE LAMANG ANG PALAYABONOTANONG AT I-SEND SA 7007423.

Wednesday, May 10, 2006

Protecting Rice Field From Rats

AGRI-INFO/MAY 10, 2006


TITLE: PROTECTING RICE FIELD FROM RATS


ALAM BA NINYO NA AABOT SA 60% ANG PINSALANG DULOT NG MGA DAGA KUNG HINDI MAKOKONTROL ANG MGA ITO. MAHIRAP SUGPUIN ANG MGA DAGA DAHIL MABILIS ANG KANILANG PAGDAMI LALO NA SA LUGAR KUNG SAAN MARAMING PAGKAIN. ANG ISANG INAHIN HALIMBAWA AY PWEDENG MANGANAK NG 1,270 SA ISANG TAON. BUKOD DITO, UMAABOT SA ANIM NA BUWAN HANGGANG ISANG TAON ANG HABA NG KANILANG BUHAY AT MAPANIRA ANG MGA ITO SA LAHAT NG YUGTO NG PALAY.

UPANG MASUGPO ANG MGA ITO, KAILANGAN ANG SAMA-SAMANG PAGKILOS NG MGA MAGSASAKA. PAGTULUNGANG HUKAYIN AT TUBIGAN ANG LUNGGA NG MGA DAGA. BAWASAN O PALIITIN ANG LAPAD NG PILAPIL UPANG HINDI ITO PAMAHAYAN NG MGA DAGA. PANATILIHIN DIN ANG KALINISAN NG MGA PILAPIL, KANAL AT PALIGID NG BUKID UPANG WALANG MAPAGTATAGUAN ANG MGA ITO.

ANG PANGHUHULI SA MGA DAGA AY NANGANGAILANGAN NG MALAWAKAN AT TULUY-TULOY NA PAGSASAGAWA UPANG TULUYANG MAIWASAN ANG PINSALANG DULOT NG MGA ITO. MAAARI RING MAGTAYO NG TRAP BARRIER SYSTEM O TBS SA MGA MAGKAKALAPIT NA BUKID. BAKURAN LAMANG ANG PALAYAN NG PLASTIK NA MAY TAAS NA 24.5 PULGADA AT IBAON ANG LAYLAYAN NITO SA LUPA. ANG BAKOD AY DAPAT MAY LAYONG ISANG METRO MULA SA PILAPIL. BUTASAN ANG PLASTIK SA MGA SULOK NA PWEDENG PASUKAN NG DAGA AT LAGYAN NG BITAG ANG BAWAT BUTAS. APAT O HIGIT PANG BITAG ANG KAILANGANG ILAGAY. KOLEKTAHIN ARAW-ARAW ANG MGA MAHUHULING DAGA PARA LAGING MALINIS ANG BITAG.

PARA SA KARAGDAGANG IMPORMASYON TUNGKOL DITO, SUMULAT O MAKIPAG-UGNAYAN SA PHILIPPINE RICE RESEARCH INSTITUTE O PHILRICE, MALIGAYA, SCIENCE CITY OF MUÑOZ, NUEVA ECIJA SA TELEPONO BILANG (044) 456-0285 LOC 221. MAAARI RING ITEXT ANG INYONG MGA KATANUNGAN SA FARMERS’ CALL CENTER. ITYPE ANG REG PANGALAN/EDAD/HOME ADDRESS/EMAIL ADDRESS KUNG MERON AT ANG KATANUNGAN UPANG MAKAPAGREGISTER AT ISEND SA 0920-911-1398.

Tuesday, May 09, 2006

Bamboo Tiles Made Easy

Researchers from the Mariano Marcos State University in Ilocos Norte developed a simple process that converts the bamboo pole into materials that can be readily used for furniture and handicrafts. Engineered Kawayan, or E-kawayan, is an advanced form of bamboo products put together to form a whole new different product—Kawayan tiles.

The bamboo, known locally as kawayan, grows just about anywhere across the country. Its use can range from making houses, fences, bridges, walking sticks, furniture, chopsticks, food steamers, toys, construction scaffolding, hats, abaci and various musical instruments. Flooring made of bamboo has become popular throughout the years. Its culms may also be cut and made into vases or tubes, or pipes to transport water or as containers.

Culms, also called the stems, can range in height from a few cm to 40 m, with stem diameters ranging from 1 mm to 30 cm. The stems are joined together by a node. Each node bears one leaf, and may also have one to several side branches.

Dr. Stanley C. Malab and Jose A. Zafaralla of MMSU developed both the process and the machineries for the development of kawayan tiles – the basic material for manufacturing engineered kawayan products.

Tiles production starts with choosing the finest bamboo trees. The culms are harvested and cut to lengths maximizing the straight portions. The researchers noted that irregularly shaped parts of the pole are cut into not less than 18 inches.

The poles are then split manually with an approximate width of 33mm. The split parts are treated with wood preservatives, boiled, and dried in a bamboo dryer – also developed in MMSU – and are left to dry for 4 days. This process improves the slats’ resistance to borer.

MMSU also developed the Kawayan Tile Machine, for the shaping of slats into desired width and thickness. Flooring made of bamboo pieces are steamed, flattened, glued together, finished, and cut. The bamboo slats, after they are treated and dried, are jointed together in the machine to minimize gaps after gluing them together.

The laminated slats are sorted to minimize apparent color differences. The laminates are cold-pressed at 150 kg/m2 vertical and 5 kg/m2 side pressures. This is done for three hours. For making planks, the slats are applied with white glue commonly found in local hardwares. The semi-finished products are smoothened through a sanding machine.

The researchers noted that the process and machines they developed were able to maximize the utilization of bamboo even its most unwanted part.

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AGRI-INFO/MAY 9, 2006


TITLE: BAMBOO TILES MADE EASY


NARINIG NA BA NINYO ANG TUNGKOL SA BAMBO TILES?

ITO AY NAISAKATUPARAN NG MGA EKSPERTO MULA SA MARIANO MARCOS STATE UNIVERSITY SA ILOCOS NORTE SA PAMAMAGITAN NG SIMPLENG PROSESO NA MA-CONVERT ANG MGA PUNO NG KAWAYAN BILANG MATERYALES PARA SA PAGGAWA NG MUWEBLES AT HANDICRAFTS.

ANG ENGINEERED KAWAYAN O TINATAWAG DING E-KAWAYAN AY MAITUTURING NA ADVANCED FORM NG BAMBOO PRODUCTS NA SADYANG BINUO PARA MAKABUO NG BAGONG PRODUKTO NA KILALA NA NGAYON SA PANGALANG KAWAYAN O BAMBO TILES.

ALAM NAMANA NATIN NA ANG KAWAYAN AY TALAGANG POPULAR SA IBAT-IBANG GAMIT NITO TULAD NG PAGPAPATAYO NG BAHAY, BAKOD, TULAY, TUNGKOD, MUWEBLES, CHOPSTICKS, FOOD STEAMERS, LARUAN, CONSTRUCTION SCAFFOLDING, SUMBRERO, AT MGA INSTRUMENTONG MUSIKAL.

BUKOD PA DYAN, SA LALAWIGAN AY GINAGAMIT DIN ITONG PANSAHIG SA BAHAY MAGING SA KAMA O TULUGAN, GINAGAMIT DIN ITO BILANG FLOWER VASE, O DALUYAN NG TUBIG O SISIDLAN NITO MAGING NG TUBA.

PINANGUNAHAN NINA DR. STANLEY MALAB AT JOSE ZAFARALLA NG MMSU ANG PANANALIKSIK PARA MAISAKATUPARAN ANG BAMBOO TILES.

Monday, May 08, 2006

Black Pearl: Beauty With a Bite

A new culinary ornamental pepper bred by Agricultural Research Service (ARS) scientists in Beltsville, Md., is earning accolades in the gardening community.

The eye-catching Black Pearl, released in 2005, was honored as a 2006 All-America Selections (AAS) winner. The award recognizes new flower and vegetable varieties that demonstrate “superior garden performance” in trials conducted throughout the country.

With moderately shiny black leaves and glossy fruits that ripen from black to red, Black Pearl offers a temptation few pepper enthusiasts can resist.

ARS plant geneticists John Stommel, of the Plant Sciences Institute’s Vegetable Laboratory, and Robert Griesbach, of the U.S. National Arboretum’s Floral and Nursery Plants Research Unit, collaborated to breed this popular prize-winner.

How does a plant become an AAS winner?The first step in breeding any new pepper cultivar is to select the desired characteristics -- in this case, dark leaves and densely clustered, round, black fruits.

It took years to refine Black Pearl’s striking appearance and spicy flavor. Once perfected, it underwent hundreds of trials to determine its response to different environments.

Stommel and Griesbach tested Black Pearl with help from private-sector cooperator PanAmerican Seed Company, Elburn, Ill., which entered the plant in the AAS competition.In trials, Black Pearl thrived in a variety of environments throughout the country.

In addition, it resisted the ravages of drought, as well as of many insects and fungi. Robust, attractive and tasty, Black Pearl was a natural winner -- and the AAS judges weren’t the only ones to think so. Since it went on the market, more than 2 million seeds have been sold.


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AGRI-INFO/MAY 8, 2006


TITLE: BLACK PEARL: BEAUTY WITH A BITE


ALAM BA NINYO NA NATUKLASAN NG MGA EKSPERTO ANG ISANG BAGONG CULINARY ORNAMENTAL PEPPER NA TINAWAG SA PANGALANG BLACK PEARL?

ANG BLACK PEARL ORNAMENTAL PEPPER NA ITO AY MERONG TAGLAY NA MAKINTAB NA KULAY ITIM NA DAHON AT MAKIKINTAB NA BUNGA NA KAPAG NAHINOG AY NAGBABAGO ANG KULAY MULA ITIM SA PULA.

SA KATUNAYAN, ANG BLACK PEARL NA ITO AY IDINEKLARANG NANALO SA 2006 ALL AMERICA SELECTIONS KUNG SAAN KINIKILALA DITO ANG BAGONG BULAKLAK AT VEGETABLE VARIETIES PARA SA TINATAWAG NA SUPERIOR GARDEN PERFORMANCE.

DAHIL DITO, NAGKASUNDO SINA ARS PLANT GENETICISTS JOHN STOMMEL NG PLANT SCIENCES INSTITUTE VEGETABLE LABORATORY AT ROBERT GRIESBACH NG US NATIONAL ARBORETUM FLORAL AND NURSERY PLANTS RESEARCH UNIT, NA ISAILALIM SA BREEDING ANG NATURANG ORNAMENTAL PEPPER VARIETY.

KUNG BAKIT NAGKAROON NG GANITONG URI NG ORNAMENTAL PEPPER VARIETY, BINUSISING MABUTI NG MGA EKSPERTO ANG MGA PEPPER CULTIVAR AT PINILI NILA ANG MGA KATANGIAN NA ANGKOP SA KANILANG PANLASA TULAD NG DARK LEAVES AT CLUSTER, ROUND, BLACK FRUITS.

SAKA GUMUGOL NG MARAMING TAON PARA MATIMPLANG MABUTI HANGGANG SA ANG RESULTA AY ANG BLACK PEARL NA HINDI MO MAAARING TANGGIHAN ANG KANYANG PAGIGING BLACK BEAUTY AT NAPAKA-SWABENG ANGHANG.

Saturday, May 06, 2006

Garlic, onion farmers can look forward to higher yields

Garlic and onion farmers may now be assured of higher yields with the application of processed chicken manure and inorganic fertilizer in combination with gibberelic acid spray.

Edmund Quinit, manager of the DA Region 1 Ilocos Integrated Agriculture Research Center (ILIARC), said researchers of the ILIARC branch station in Batac, Ilocos Norte found that a combination of the organic fertilizer Durabloom and inorganic fertilizer (60-15-45) plus gibberellic acid work well on garlic and onion.

Durabloom is processed chicken manure developed by Dr. Ronaldo Sumaoaong, owner and manager of the Novatech Agri-Food Industries.

Processed chicken manure is produced with the application of Biosec, a combination of immobilized live beneficial microorganisms and protein digestive enzyme that digest or degrade fresh chicken manure discovered earlier by Sumaoang.

Wilhelmina P. Castaneda, chief of the ILIARC branch station in Batac, and Leticia A. Bensan demonstrated the technology in the farms of 692 garlic farmers and 131 onion farmers with total area of 325 hectares in two Ilocos Sur towns and three Ilocos Norte towns.

The fertilizer combination per hectare consisted of 10 bags Durabloom, 65 kg nitrogen, 15 kg phosphorus, and 45 kg potash. Two tablets of the growth hormone Berelex, which contains gibberellic acid, were sprayed on garlic and Batanes Jumbo onion at 36 and 56 days after planting (DAP) late in the afternoon.

On shallot onion, Berelex was sprayed at 20 and 40 DAP late in the afternoon. Garlic yielded 5.2 tons per hectare (T/ha) while onion produced 25.45 T/ha. Translated into pesos, gross and net incomes from garlic amounted to P135,182 and P84,182 a hectare, respectively, and resulted in a 1.65 benefit-cost ratio.

In onion, yields ranged from 15.15 to 22.15 T/ha. Garlic yields produced by other fertilizer treatments ranged from 3.4 to 4.6 T/ha. Without Durabloom and gibberellic acid, farmers usually harvest 2.5 T/ha


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AGRI-INFO/MAY 6, 2006


TITLE: GARLIC, ONION FARMERS CAN LOOK FORWARD TO HIGHER YIELDS


ALAM BA NINYO NA TIYAK NANG TATAAS ANG PRODUKSIYON NG BAWANG AT SIBUYAS SA PAMAMAGITAN NG PAGGAMIT NG NA-PROSESONG CHICKEN MANURE AT INORGANIC FERTILIZER, KA-KUMBINASYON NG GIBBERELIC ACID SPRAY?

NATUKLASAN NG MGA EKSPERTO NG ILOCOS INTEGRATED AGRICULTURE RESEARCH CENTER NA NAKABASE SA BATAC ILOCOS NORTE NA ANG KUMBINASYON NG ORGANIC FERTILIZER DURABLOOM AT INORGANIC FERTILIZER (60-15-45) KAAKIBAT ANG GIBBERELLIC ACID AY MAITUTURING NA NAPAKABUTI PARA SA GARLIC AT ONION PRODUCTION.

ANG DURABLOOM AY ANG NA-PROSESONG CHICKEN MANURE NA NAISAKATUPARAN NI DR. RONALDO SUMAOAONG, JAY-ARI AT MANAGER NG NOVATECH AGRI-FOOD INDUSTRIES.

UNANG NAI-DEMO NINA WILHELMINA CASTANEDA, CHIEF NG ILIARC-BATAC AT LETICIA BENSAN ANG NATURANG TEKNOLOHIA SA MGA SAKAHAN NG MAY 692 GARLIC FARMERS AT 131 ONION FARMERS SA LAWAK NG LUPAIN NA 325 HECTARES SA DALAWANG BAYAN NG ILOCOS SUR AT TATLONG BAYAN NG ILOCOS NORTE.

ANG FERTILIZER COMBINATION PER HECTARE AY 10 BAG NG DURABLOO, 65 KILOS NG NITROGEN, 15KG NG PHOSPHOROUS AT 45 KILO NG POTASH.

DAHIL DITO, ANG GARLIC YIELD AY TUMAAS NG HANGGANG 5.2TONS PER HECTARE AT NAGKAROON DIN NG MALAKING PAGBABAGO SA ANI NG SIBUYAS.

Friday, May 05, 2006

Bt eggplant resistant to pests to hit market

Believe it or not, the eggplant, known in Filipino as talong, is now the most favorite vegetable of Filipinos.Recent findings that it is nutritious also pushed many Filipinos to splurge on the cheap vegetable, making it the No. 1 veggie in the country today.

But do you know that production of eggplant has been severely hampered by pests known as the fruit and shoot borer?

Farmers have long been using pesticides to kill the pesky fruit and shoot borer and many farmers in Bukidnon and South Cotabato have resorted to spraying eggplants with pesticides, which invariably end up poisoning the environment and humans as well.

Scientists have developed a response to this problem, which is common among Mindanao vegetable growers.Now, these savants say that a breed of eggplant can resist the fruit and shoot borer and the government is now being geared up for initial field-testing in Bay, Laguna.

Confident that the National Biosafety Committee of the Philippines (NCBP) will approve its commercial release in due time, Dr. Josefina Narciso of the Institute of Plant Breeding (IPB), principal investigator of the project, said they expect to release the Philippine-tested fruit and shoot borer resistant eggplant (FSBR) in the market next year.

The eggplant, considered the next staple food in the archipelago, next to rice, is generally planted in small plantations in the low-elevation areas of Mindanao, Cagayan Valley, Ilocos region, Central Luzon, Southern Tagalog, and Central and Western Visayas.At the very least, 20,000 hectares are devoted to the production of eggplants.

This land area generates 179,000 metric tons in annual yield of the crop that provides the much-needed potassium and phosphorous in the Filipinos' diet.Sadly, 25 percent of eggplant production cost goes to chemical pesticides, making the farmers and the Philippines economy lose more than 50 percent of its investments.

Another setback in the extensive use of chemicals as pesticides is that the pests, in time gets immune to the pesticides, making the farmers use more chemicals, all of which threaten to turn the eggplant into a chemical cocktail.

In December 20, 2005, the Bureau of Plant Industries (BPI) through the Plant Quarantine Services (PQS), approved the importation of FSBR eggplant breeding materials from India.


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AGRI-INFO/MAY 5, 2006



TITLE: PINOY SCIENTISTS DEVELOPED PESTS-RESISTANT EGGPLANT


ALAM BA NINYO NA NAGAWANG MAISAKATUPARAN NG MGA PILIPINONG SIYENTISTA ANG ISANG URI NG TALONG NA MAY KAKAYANANG LABANAN ANG PAG-ATAKE NG MGA PESTE?

GINAWA ITO NG MGA AGRI-EXPERT SA ATING BANSA DAHIL SA KATOTOHANAN NA ANG TALONG AY ITINUTURING NA PINAKA-PABORITONG GULAY NG MGA PINOY.

BATAY SA MGA PAG-AARAL NA GINAWA NG MGA EKSPERTO, ANG TALONG AY NUMERO UNONG GULAY SA BUONG PILIPINAS.

DAHIL DITO, LALU PANG PINAG-IBAYO NG MGA EKSPERTO ANG PANANALIKSIK PARA MATIYAK NA PROTEKTADO ANG GULAY NA ITO LABAN SA ATAKE NG MGA PESTE TULAD NG FRUIT AT SHOOT BORER.

ITO ANG DAHILAN KUNG BAKIT NAPILITAN ANG MGA MAGSASAKA SA LALAWIGAN NG BUKIDNON AT SOUTH COTABATO NA GUMAMIT NG KEMIKAL PARA MAPUKSA ANG PESTE NA NAGDULOT NAMAN NG MASAMANG EPEKTO SA KAPILIGIRAN DAHIL NAGSISILBING LASON SA KALIKASAN ANG MGA GINAGAMIT NA PESTISIDYO.

SUMASAILALIM NA SA INISYAL NA FIELD TESTING SA BAY, LAGUNA ANG BAGONG TUKLAS NA VARIETY NG TALONG AT UMAASA NAMAN SI DR. JOSEFINA NARCISO NG INSTITUTE OF PLANT BREEDING NA MAAARI NANG GAMITIN SA PANG-KOMERSIYAL ANG EGGPLANT VARIETY NA ITO SA SUSUNOD NA TAON.

ANG TALONG AY KARANIWANG NANG ITINATANIM SA MGA SAKAHAN NG MINDANAO, CAGAYAN VALLEY, ILOCOS REGION, CENTRAL LUZON, SOUTHERN TAGALOG MAGING SA CENTRAL AT WESTERN VISAYAS.

Thursday, May 04, 2006

Smoke-Clearing Technology May Come From Poultry House Air Scrubber

A device invented by the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) to clean dust and microorganisms from the air of poultry houses may also help people escape during fires and make it easier for fire fighters to locate people in smoke-filled rooms.

The technology was originally developed by ARS agricultural engineer Bailey Mitchell, with the agency's Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory in Athens, Ga., to trap airborne particles like dust and microbes in poultry houses. Unlike previous technology, which was typically large, bulky and expensive, costing from $1,000 to $25,000, Mitchell's machine is relatively small and could be portable and battery-operated.

ARS has already licensed the device, called the Electrostatic Space Charge System (ESCS), for agricultural applications to Baumgartner Environics, Inc., of Olivia, Minn.ESCS generates a negative electrostatic charge on dust and other airborne particles, causing them to be attracted to grounded surfaces like walls or the floor. Unlike most air cleaners, it does not require air to move through it for cleaning to occur.

Mitchell used a smoke generator to demonstrate ESCS's abilities, which gave rise to the idea that the device can clean the air of smoke just as easily as it does dust and microbes. What still needs to be tested is just how fast it can actually clear smoke to provide a reasonably clear field of vision, according to Mitchell.

By mounting the self-contained, waterproof device in areas such as stairwells or hallways, it may be able to give people a clearer path to exits in the event of a fire. In addition, since the device can also be portable, firefighters could carry one into smoke-filled buildings to make it easier to find people who have been overcome.

The device is also lightweight and may be of use in clearing smoke from airplanes and trains as well.The University of Pittsburgh\'s FirstLink program, which has a contract with the U.S. Department of Defense to seek out new technology for first responders, is planning a series of tests and demonstrations to document the device\'s ability to clear smoke from the air.ARS is the U.S. Department of Agriculture\'s chief scientific research agency.

This is one of the news reports that ARS Information distributes to subscribers on weekdays.* Start, stop or change an e-mail subscription at www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/subscribe.htm* NewsService@ars.usda.gov www.ars.usda.gov/news* Phone (301) 504-1638 fax (301) 504-1486.

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AGRI-INFO/MAY 4, 2006



TITLE: SMOKE-CLEARING TECHNOLOGY MAY COME FROM POULTRY HOUSE AIR SCRUBBER

ALAM BA NINYO NA NATUKLASAN NG MGA EKSPERTO NA ANG DEVICE NA NAGLALAYONG LINISIN ANG MGA ALIKABOK AT MICROORGANISM SA POULTRY HOUSES AY MAAARI NA RING MAGAMI T NG TAO PARA MAKALIGTAS SA ANUMANG SUNOG AT MAS MADALI PARA SA MGA PAMATAY SUNOG NA MAKITA ANG MGA TAO SA LOOB NG NASUSUNOG NA GUSALI O BAHAY?

ANG NATURANG TEKNOLOHIYA AY ORIHINAL NA NAISAKATUPARAN NG ARS AGRICULTURAL ENGINEER BAILEY MITCHELL PARA MA-TRAP ANG MGA AIRBORNE PARTICLE TULAD NG ALIKABOK AT MICROBES SA POULTRY HOUSES.

ANG NATURANG DEVICE AY TINAWAG NA ELECTROSTATIC SPACE CHARGE SYSTEM PARA SA AGRICULTURAL APPLICATIONS AT ITO AY NASA PANGALAN NG ENVIRONICS, INC NG OLIVIA MINNESOTA.

ANG NATURANG DEVICE AY MAY KAKAYANANG MAG-GENERATE NG NEGATIVE ELECTROSTATIC CHARGE SA MGA ALIKABOK AT IBA PANG AIRBORNE PARTICLES, DAHILAN PARA MA-ATTRACT ANG MGA ITO SA GROUNDED SURFACE TULAD NG DINGDING O KAYA AY SAHIG O FLOORING.

KAPAG MOUNTED ITO SA MGA LUGAR TULAD NG HAGDAN O HALLWAYS, ANG MGA TAO AY MERONG GIYA NA MAKALABAS SA GUSALI O BAHAY KAPAG MAY SUNOG.

Wednesday, May 03, 2006

Automated System Predicts Grape Yields

Estimating grape yields is a time-consuming, laborious affair. But that could change, thanks to a high-tech helping hand from Agricultural Research Service (ARS) scientists in Prosser, Wash.

There, ARS horticulturist Julie Tarara and colleagues have developed an automated system for estimating grape yields based on tension changes in the trellis wire used to support the vine crop. Her team is still field-testing the system.

The hope is that the yield estimates it produces will allow growers and processors to better synchronize their pruning, watering, picking and juice-making operations.

According to Tarara, who works in ARS' Horticultural Crops Research Unit at Prosser, the current method of estimating grape yields involves counting berry clusters on sample vines, followed by counting and weighing of individual berries.

The averages are then compared to records from past seasons to predict the current crop's likely yield.Imprecise estimates can sometimes be costly. For example, an inflated yield estimate might lead a winery to order more barrels than it actually needs. The "pain" is in the price tag: New American oak barrels start at around $300, while new French oak barrels cost from $600 to around $800 each.

The scientists' automated system employs a device called a load cell to detect increases in the tension of trellis wire as grape clusters form and berries enlarge. A data logger records signals generated by the tension changes every 10 seconds, formulating an average every 15 minutes.

Now, Tarara's team must download, inspect and "clean" data logger information for processing and eventual use in predicting grape yield. Once validated with field tests, though, the process will be completely automated, providing users with real-time information on their crop's progress, according to Tarara.

Her team\'s yield research complements a broader viticulture program at Prosser aimed at helping Pacific Northwest growers claim a greater share of domestic and world grape markets through improved farm practices and mechanized operations.Read more about the research in the April 2006 issue of Agricultural Research magazine.

http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/apr06/trellis0406.htmARS is the U.S. Department of Agriculture\'s chief scientific research agency.___________________________________________* This is one of the news reports that ARS Information distributes to subscribers on weekdays.* Start, stop or change an e-mail subscription at www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/subscribe.htm* NewsService@ars.usda.gov www.ars.usda.gov/news* Phone (301) 504-1638 fax (301) 504-1486

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AGRI-INFO/MAY 3, 2006



TITLE: AUTOMATED SYSTEM PREDICTS GRAPE YIELDS


ALAM BA NINYO NA NATUKLASAN NG MGA AGRI-EXPERT ANG HIGH TECH NA SISTEMA PARA SA MAS MABILIS NA GRAPE YIELD ESTIMATE?

ITO AY SA PAMAMAGITAN NG AUTOMATED SYSTEM NA NATUKLASAN NG GRUPO NI ARS HORTICULTURIST JULIE TARARA, BASE SA TINATAWAG NA TENSION CHANGES SA TRELLIS WIRE NA SIYANG GINAGAMIT BILANG SUPORTA SA GRAPES.

ANG NATUKLASANG ITO NG GRUPO NI TARARA AY KAILANGAN PANG SUMAILALIM SA FIELD TESTING NGUNIT UMAASA SILANG MAGIGING KAPAKI-PAKINABANG ITO SA MGA MAGSASAKA AT MAGING SA MGA PROCESSOR PARA SA TINATAWAG NA SYNCHRONIZATION NG PRUNING, WATERING, PICKING AT JUICEMAKING OPERATIONS.

BATAY SA KASALUKUYANG SISTEMA, ANG YIELD ESTIMATE AY GINAGAWA SA PAMAMAGITAN NG PAGBIBILANG NG BERRY CLUSTERS SA SAMPLE VINES, KASUNOD NG PAGBIBILANG O COUNTING AT WEIGHING O PAGTITIMBANG NG INVIDUAL BERRIES.

ANG AVERAGE NG GANITONG SISTEMA AY IHAHAMBING SA RECORD SA MGA NAKALIPAS NA TANIMAN PARA MATAYA ANG KASALUKUYANG YIELD NG TANIM.

NGUNIT ANG HINDI TUMPAK NA ESTIMATE AY KALIMITANG NAGIGING MAGASTOS, SAMANTALANG SA PAMAMAGITAN NG AUTOMATED SYSTEM, KAILANGAN LAMANG NITO ANG ISANG DEVICE NA TINATAWAG NA LOAD CELL PARA MA-DETECT ANG PAGTAAS NG TENSION NG TRELLIS WIRE HABANG LUMALAKI ANG GRAPE CLUSTERS AT BERRIES.

Tuesday, May 02, 2006

Season of Birth Affects Calf Growth on Great Plains

To everything, there is a season--even for ranchers raising herds of cattle out on America's Great Plains.

According to scientists with the Agricultural Research Service (ARS), calving season--the time of year when a cow gives birth to a calf--is an important factor in determining how healthy a cow and calf will be, how much weight they'll gain, and how much high-quality nutrition will be available to them.

ARS animal scientist Elaine Grings, along with colleagues at the agency's Ft. Keogh Livestock and Range Research Laboratory in Miles City, Mont., recently completed a three-year study investigating differently timed calving-season and weaning strategies and how they affect mother cows and their calves.The researchers also wanted to see how certain calving times--late winter, early spring or late spring--affect the economics of livestock production.

In the northern Great Plains, which includes Montana, Wyoming and North Dakota, the primary inputs for raising cattle are the costs associated with providing ample nutrition to the animals.

This feed comes in the form of supplements, winter hay, and the grasses that the animals graze.In this semiarid region characterized by rolling hills and broken badlands, ranchers are accustomed to a narrow growing period that typically peaks in May and June, when temperatures and precipitation encourage new, cool-season grasses to sprout.

According to Grings, this forage can be a vital source of food for lactating cows, which pass important nutrients on to their calves through their milk.

In choosing a calving season, a rancher changes the priority of how the most nutritious forage is used. The rancher can time the cows\' reproduction so that the highest quality forage goes to boosting cows\' weight gain during pregnancy, encouraging milk production for their nursing calves--or to nourishing the calves themselves, which need hardy forage to properly grow and develop.Grings\' calving study was published in the Journal of Animal Science.



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AGRI-INFO/MAY 2, 2006



TITLE: SEASON OF BIRTH AFFECTS CALF GROWTH ON GREAT PLAINS


ALAM BA NINYO NA ANG CALVING SEASON AY SADYANG NAPAKAHALAGA PARA SA KALUSUGAN NG BAKA HANGGANG SA PAGLAKI NITO KUNG GAANO KABIGAT ANG TIMBANG AT KUNG GAANO ANG KAILANGAN NITONG HIGH QUALITY NUTRITION?

NATAPOS NA NI ARS ANIMAL SCIENTIST ELAINE GRINGS, ANG TATLONG TAON NITONG PAG-AARAL MAGKAKAIBANG CALVING SEASON AT WEANING STRATEGIES AT KUNG ANO ANG EPEKTO NITO SA INAHING BAKA AT KANILANG MGA ANAK.

NAIS DING MALAMAN NG MGA EKSPERTO KUNG ANO ANG EPEKTO SA LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION NG MAGKAKAIBANG CALVING TIMES TULAD NG SA U-S.

ANG MAITUTURING NA PRIMARY INPUTS PARA SA PAGPAPALAKI NG BAKA AY ANG GASTUSIN NA SADYANG LAAN PARA SA SAPAT NA NUTRISYON SA MGA ALAGANG BAKA.

KABILANG NA RITO ANG ANGKOP NA SUPPLEMENTS, MGA DAMO AT IBA PANG PAKAIN.

Monday, May 01, 2006

A Second Nematode-Foiling Gene Found in Grape Plants

Agricultural Research Service (ARS) studies on grape genetics have uncovered a second gene that helps grape plants resist root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne).

The finding came during research led by ARS plant geneticist Peter Cousins on the gene known as N that naturally protects the grape plants against the nematodes.

Cousins works at ARS' recently established Grape Genetics Research Unit (GGRU) in Geneva, N.YSpecifically, Cousins and colleagues studied a type of grape--an accession of Vitis mustangensis called DVIT1842--that fends off a new strain of root-knot nematode that is able to overcome the natural defenses of other grape rootstocks.

These aggressive nematodes are putting an economic strain on many grape growers, particularly in California.Laurie Boyden, a Cornell University doctoral student working with Cousins, made the discovery that the source of DVIT1842's resistance to nematodes wasn't just a variation of the N gene, but was a different gene altogether.

According to Boyden, this finding may make it possible to breed both of the nematode-resisting genes into the same rootstock, a strategy that could provide better protection for grapes if the two genes act in different ways or if their interaction makes them more effective.

The nematode-resistance study is one of many ongoing projects at GGRU, whose scientists work to improve grapes through characterization and deployment of genes. Other topics under investigation there include grape color, fungal diseases and the genes involved in ripening, flowering, bud break and leaf fall.

The goal of the nematode work is development and introduction of rootstocks that are both resistant to the tougher nematodes and adaptable to California viticulture, according to Cousins.The work by Cousins and his colleagues began when Geneva grape genetics research was conducted in the Plant Genetic Resources Unit.



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AGRI-INFO/MAY 1, 2006



TITLE: 2ND NEMATODE-FOILING GENE FOUND IN GRAPE PLANTS


ALAM BA NINYO NA NATUKLASAN NG MGA AGRI-EXPERT ANG IKALAWANG GENE NG GRAPE PLANTS NA MAKATUTULONG NG MALAKI SA TANIM PARA LABANAN ANG PESTENG ROOT-KNOT NEMATODES?

ITO AY NATUKLASAN SA GINAWANG PANANALIKSIK NG MGA EKSPERTO SA PANGUNGUNA NI ARS PLANT GENETICIST PETER COUSINS SA SECOND GENE NA TINAGURIANG LETRANG “N” NA NATURAL NA NAGBIBIGAY PROTEKSIYON SA GRAPE PLANTS LABAN SA NEMATODES.

PARTIKULAR NA PINAG-ARALANG MABUTI DITO ANG ISANG URI NG GRAPE- ANG ACCESSION NG VITIS MUSTANGENSIS NA TINAGURIANG DVIT 1842, NA MAY KAKAYANANG LABANAN ANG BAGONG STRAIN NG ROOT KNOT NEMATODE.

ITINUTURING NA AGRESIBONG NEMATODE, ANG ROOT KNOT NEMATODE AY MAY KAKAYANAN NA PAHINAIN ANG NATURAL DEFENSES NG MARAMING GRAPE ROOTSTOCKS.

AYON KAY LAURIE BOYDEN, DOCTORAL STUDENT NG CORNELL UNIVERSITY NA TUMULONG KAY COUSINS, ANG RESISTANCE NG DVIT 1842 SA NEMATODE AY HINDI LAMANG VARIATION NG N GENE KUNDI ITO TALAGA AY IBANG GENE NG GRAPE PLANT.

ANG GANITONG FINDINGS, AYON PA KAY BOYDEN AY MAKATUTULONG NG MALAKI PARA POSIBLENG MAISAKATUPARAN ANG BREEDING NG KAPWA NEMATODE-RESISTING GENES SA IISANG ROOTSTOCK, ISANG STRATEHIYA NA MAKATUTULONG NG MALAKI PARA SA MAS MATINDING PROTEKSIYON SA GRAPE PLANTS KAPAG UMAAKTO ANG DALAWANG GENE SA MAGKAIBANG PARAAN O KUNG ANG KANILANG INTERACTION AY NAKATUTULONG PARA SILA AY MAGING EPEKTIBO.