Saturday, October 14, 2006

Silver Nitrate Prolong Dendrobium

AGRI-INFO/ OCTOBER 14, 2006



TITLE: SILVER NITRATE PROLONGS DENDROBIUM


ALAM BA NINYO NA NAKAPAGPAPATAGAL SA KASARIWAAN NG HALAMANG DENDROBIUM ANG SOLUSYON NA KILALA SA PANGALANG SILVER NITRATE?

KAYA NITONG PATALAGALIN NG HANGGANG 21 ARAW ANG KASARIWAAN NG DENDROBIUM MULA SA KARANIWANG PITONG ARAW LAMANG SA KARANIWANG TEMPERATURA.

ANG PAMAMARAANG ITO AY MAGAGAMIT SA PAG-IIMBAK NG DAPO O NG DENDROBIUM NANG MATAGAL NA PANAHON LALU NA KAPAG ANG PRODUKSIYONAY SAGANA AT ANG PANGANGAILANGAN SA PAMILIHAN AY MABABA.

NGAYON, PAANO ANG PAGHAHANDA SA DAPO DENDROBIUM:

MAG-ANI NG MGA 100 TANGKAY NG MGA BULAKLAK NG DENDROBIUM KAPAG 60 HANGGANG 70 PORSIYENTO NA ANG BUKA. ANG PAG-AANI AY PINAKAMAGALING NA ISAGAWA NG MGA ALAS-6 NG UMAGA.

PAGBUKUD-BUKURIN ANG GANAP AT HINDI PA GANAP NA MGA BUKANG BULAKLAK.

SURIIN ANG MGA BULAKLAK SA MAGKAKAPAREHONG LAKI AT PUTULIN ANG PINAKAMABABANG DULO NG TANGKAY NG BULAKLAK.

Friday, October 13, 2006

Use of Biyas or Pemiento Production

AGRI-INFO/OCTOBER 13, 2006



TITLE: USE OF BIYAS OR PEMIENTO PRODUCTION



ISANG TEKNIK SA PAGPAPARAMI NG PAMINTA GAMIT ANG ISANG BIYAS NA MAY ISANG DAHON ANG NALINANG NG SOUTH SUMATRA INDONESIA ASSESSMENT INSTITUTE FOR AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY NA NASA SOUTH SUMATRA PROVINCE.

ANG ISANG BIYAS NA TEKNIK AY NAKAPAGBIBIGAY NG MARAMING PUNLA SA MAIKLING PANAHON; NABABAWASAN ANG PAGGAMIT NG MGA HALAMANG MATERYALES; AT ANG PAGTUBO AT PAGKAPRODUKTIBO AY HINDI NAIIBA SA LIMA HANGGANG PITONG MGA BIYAS SA PAGPAPARAMI.

MGA KAILANGAN SA PAGPUTOL NG BAGING PARA SA PUNLA:

ANG UMAKYAT NA PUNO AY MAHUSAY ANG PAGTUBO AT MALAKAS.

ANG BAWAT BIYAS AY MAY PUMUPULUPOT NA UGAT

ANG DAHON AY NANGINGITIM NA LUNTIAN

ANG HALAMAN AY MGA ANIM NA BUWAN ANG GULANG

ANG AKSIL O ANG ITAAS NA ANGGULO SA PAGITAN NG SANGAO DAHON AT NG KINAKAPITANG PANGUNAHING TANGKAY AY MERONG TULOG O HINDI LUMALAKING TUBO.

ANG KATING NA TINATAWAG AY KAILANGANG HANGGANG PITONG BIYAS.

HATIIN ANG PITONG BIYAS SA PITONG KATING NA BAWAT ISA AY MAY ISANG DAHONG NATITIRA. UPANG MAPASIGLA ANG PAGTUBO NG UGAT, MAAARING GUMAMIT NG PAMPASIGLANG SUSTANSIYA. PATUBUTIN ANG MGA KATING SA POLYBAG.

Thursday, October 12, 2006

Protecting Citurs Fruits From Disease

AGRI-INFO/OCTOBER 12, 2006



TITLE: PROTECTING CITRUS FRUITS FROM DISEASE


ALAM BA NINYO NA ANG CITRUS AY MADALING KAPITAN NG SAKIT TULAD NG TRISTEZA, PAGKABULOK NG UGAT PHYTOTOPHRA ATCITRUS GREENING.

KAYA SA PRODUKSIYON NG MGA PANANIM O PUNLA NG CITRUS, PUMILI NG MALUSOG NA MGA PUNONG SUSUGPUNGAN (ROOT STOCKS) AT MAPAGKUKUNAN NG MGA SANGANG PANSUGPONG (SCIONS), GAYUNDIN ANG TAMANG PARAAN SA PAGPAPARAMI.

ANG MGA PARAAN NG PAGPAPARAMI MULA SA MGA BAHAGI NG INANG HALAMAN (MOTHER PLANT) TULAD NG PAGPAPAUGAT (MARCOTTING) AY HINDI IPINAPAYO DAHIL ANG PAGKALAT NG MGA SAKIT AY NAGSISIMULA SA MGA SANGA.

NAPAKAHIRAP DIN NA KILANLIN ANG MGA SANGA NA LIGTAS SA MGA SAKIT NA SANHI NG VIRUS.

KAYA ANG TEKNIK NG PAGPAPASANGA (BUDDING TECH NIQUE) AY IMINUMUNGKAHI UPANG MASIGURO NA ANG MGA PUNONG SUSUGPUNGAN AT ANG MGA PANSUGPONG NA SANGANG GINAGAMIT AY LIGTAS SA SAKIT.

Wednesday, October 11, 2006

Spider Lynx Controls Fruitfly

AGRI-INFO/OCTOBER 11, 2006



TITLE: SPIDER LYNX CONTROLS FRUITFLY


ALAM BA NINYO NA NATUKLASAN NG MGA AGRI-EXPERT NA ANG SPIDER LYNX AY KAYANG KONTROLIN ANG ORIENTAL FRUITFLY?

ANG ORIENTAL FRUITFLY AY ISANG URI NG PESTENG PRUTAS-LANGAW NA NANGANGANLONG SA IBAT-IBANG URI NG HALAMAN.

MAHIRAP ITONG SUGPUIN SA PAMAMAGITAN NG ISANG URI LANG NG PAMATAY-INSEKTO, KAYA MAINAM NA GAMITIN ANG SAMA-SAMANG SISTEMA SA PAGKONTROL NITO.

ANG SPIDER LYNX NA KILALA SA PANGALANG OXYOPES LINEATIPES, AY NATUKLASANG EPEKTIBONG MANINILA AT MABUTI SA PAGKONTROL NG POPULASYON NG PRUTAS-LANGAW.

ANG GAGAMBANG ITO AY HALOS NANINIRAHAN SA MADADAMONG LUGAR SA PALIBOT NG MGA PUNUNGKAHOY AT HINAHANAP ANG MGA PRUTAS-LANGAW NA SUMUSULPOT O LUMALABAS SA PUPA O UOD NA TULOG.

BATAY SA GINAWANG PAG-AARAL NG DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SA BANGKOK, THAILAND, MAGAGAMI ANG LYNX LABAN SA PRUTAS-LANGAW SA TANIMAN NG MANGGA, SUHA AT DALANDAN.

Tuesday, October 10, 2006

Controlling Rhizoctonia Disease In Vegetables

AGRI-INFO/OCTOBER 10, 2006



TITLE: CONTROLLING RHIZOCTONIA DISEASE IN VEGETABLES



ALAM BA NINYO KUNG ANO ANG MGA PAMAMARAAN PARA MASUGPO ANG RHIZOCTONIA?

ANG RHIZOCTONIA AY ISANG URI NG AMAG NA NAGIGING SANHI NG IBAT-IBANG URI NG SAKIT SA MGA GULAY.

NABATID SA PANANALIKSIK NG MGA EKSPERTO NA ANG MAINIT AT MAHALUMIGMIG NA PANAHON ANG NAGIGING SANHI NG MABILIS NITONG PAG-UNLAD SA MGA HALAMAN TULAD NG REOLYO, KAMATIS, BEANS AT MAIS.

ANO NGA BA ANG SINTOMAS NG SAKIT NA ITO? ANG SINTOMAS NITO AY LUMALABAS SA UGAT NG MGA BATANG HALAMAN AT SA BAHAGI NG KATAWAN NG HALAMAN NA MALAPIT SA LUPA, GAYUNDIN SA MGA DAHON NG MAGULANG NA MGA HALAMAN.

ANG PANGKARANIWANG MGA SINTOMAS NG RHIZOCTONIA AY ANG ITIM NA BULOK SA UGAT; PAGKABULOK NG COLLAR SA MGA PUNLA, LUBOG NA MGA KANKER NG MGA PUNO, NALALANTANG LAPAK (SHEATH BLIGHT) AT MALAMBOT NA PAGKABULOK.

ANG HIWA O SUGAT SA MGA BATANG HALAMAN AY MADALAS NA KULAY KAYUMANGGI, ANG BAHAGNG MALAPIT SA LUPA AY BABAD SA TUBIG AT ITO AY NAGIGING SANHI NG PAGKALANTA NG PUNO (DAMPING OFF) PAGKABULOK NG COLLAR O KULYAR.

Monday, October 09, 2006

Mixed Juices Of Guyabano, Mango and Calamansi

AGRI-INFO/OCTOBER 9, 2006



TITLE: MIXED JUICES OF GUYABANO, MANGO AND CALAMANSI


ALAM BA NINYO NA IPINAKILALA NG MGA EKSPERTO ANG ISANG BAGONG JUICE MULA SA PINAGHALONG KATAS NG GUYABANO, AT IBA PANG PRUTAS TULAD NG MANGGA AT KALAMANSI.

ANG NATURANG PINAGHALONG KATAS NG MGA PRUTAS AY DINEVELOP NG MGA MANANALIKSIK NG CAVITE STATE UNIVERSITY SA INDANG, CAVITE.

SA ISINAGAWANG PAGSUSURI, 42 PORSIYENTO NG MGA PINATIKIM AY GUSTUNG-GUSTO ANG PINAGHALONG KATAS NA MAY 75 BAHAGI NG GUYABANO AT 25 BAHAGI NG MANGGA, SAMANTALANG 40 PORSIYENTO ANG GUSTO ANG PINAGHALONG KATAS NG GUYABANO AT KALAMANSI.

ANG PINAGHALONG KATAS NA MAS MABABA ANG KALAMANSI AY MAS KATANGGAP TANGGAP KAYSA DOON SA MAY MAS MATAAS NA KALAMANSI AT ITO AY LUBHANG PINABORAN NG MGA NAKATIKIM.

NABATID NA ANG PRODUKSIYON NG 100 POUCHES NG PINAGHALONG KATAS NG GUYABANO AT MANGGA AT PINAGHALONG KATAS NG GUYABANO AT KALAMANSI AY NAGBIGAY NG 0.54 AT0.63 NA NATURINGANG PAKINABANG SA YUNIT NA HALAGA NG 10-PISO BAWAT POUCH.

Saturday, October 07, 2006

Fruit Fly Aggression Studies Have Relevance To Humans, Animals

Even the tiny, mild-mannered fruit fly can be a little mean sometimes – especially when there’s a choice bit of rotten fruit to fight over. And, like people, some flies have shorter tempers than others.

Researchers in the North Carolina Sate University genetics department have identified a suite of genes that affect aggression in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, pointing to new mechanisms that could contribute to abnormal aggression in humans and other animals.

The study, led by doctoral student Alexis Edwards in the laboratory of Dr. Trudy Mackay, William Neal Reynolds Professor of Genetics, appears online in PloS Genetics.

Feisty flies themselves may not be very scary, but their genes and biochemistry have more in common with those of humans than the casual observer might suspect, and geneticists can subject flies to experiments that simply can’t be done on higher organisms.

To measure aggression, the researchers starved male flies for an hour and a half, then gave them a small food droplet and watched them duke it out, counting the number of times a focal fly would chase, kick, box, or flick his wings at other flies.

“Some animals will very vigorously defend their little food patch, whereas others are relatively polite,” Mackay said. “To determine if this had a genetic basis, we conducted a selection experiment.”

For the selection experiment, Edwards pulled three groups of flies – high aggression, low aggression and control – from the same baseline population, and kept them separate for 28 generations. From each generation, she selected the most aggressive flies from the high aggression group, the least aggressive flies from the low aggression group, and a random sample of the control flies, to be the parents of the next generation.

All the flies started at the same level of aggression, but after 28 generations of selection, the high aggression groups were kicking, chasing and boxing more often, while low aggression groups would hardly fight at all.

Selection experiments only show these kinds of results when there is some genetic control over the trait being selected. In this case, the genetic effect was not very strong – the heritability, or genetic contribution to, aggressive behavior was about 10 percent. The other 90 percent had to be attributed to environmental variation.

“This is definitely not genetic predeterminism,” Mackay said. “It’s a susceptibility. Even in flies, in the constant environment in which we grow them, the environment is more important than the genes. But we are very interested in that small genetic contribution.”

Next, the researchers wanted to know which specific genes affect a fly’s chances of becoming a bully. To find out, they conducted a microarray experiment, a way of comparing which genes are turned on or off, or up or down, in aggressive versus non-aggressive flies.

They found 1,539 genes that were expressed differently in the two groups – and flies only have about 14,000 genes in all. It will take more work to find out which of these genes directly affect aggressive behavior, which ones change as a result of the behavior, and how they do it.

But Edwards started by studying 19 families of flies, each of which had a single mutation in one of the genes identified in the microarray experiment. Fifteen of those 19 mutant families did, in fact, display abnormal aggression compared to non-mutants, confirming the role of those specific genes in aggressive behavior.

Those genes were already known to affect nervous system development, metabolism and immunity, among other things – but none of them had been previously implicated in aggression. Many of them have human counterparts.

“Now we have 15 completely novel genes we can use in the future to investigate aggressive behavior,” Mackay said. “Ultimately we hope to understand the basic biology of this very important trait, because the better we understand it in flies, the more we can develop logical human pharmaceutical interventions.”

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AGRI-INFO/OCTOBER 7, 2006



TITLE: FRUIT FLY AGGRESSION RELEVANCE TO HUMANS, ANIMALS


ALAM BA NINYO NA NATUKLASAN NG MGA EKSPERTO NA ANG AGRESSION O PAG-ATAKE NG MGA FRUIT FLIES AY SANHI NG ISANG GENE NA MERON ITO NA KATULAD DIN NG SA TAO?

SA GINAWANG PAG-AARAL NG MGA EKSPERTO SA PANGUNGUNA NI ALEXIS EDWARDS SA LABORATORYO MISMO NI DR. TRUDY MACKAY AT WILLIAM NEAL REYNOLDS NG GENETICS SA NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY, NATUKLASAN NILA NA ANG GENES AT BIOCHEMISTRY AY TULAD NG SA TAO.

SA KATUNAYAN PARA MAPATUNAYAN LAMANG ANG GANITONG FINDINGS AY SINUKAT MISMO NG MGA EKSPERTO ANG AGGRESSION NG MGA FRUIT FLIES.

SINADYA NILANG GUTUMIN SA LOOB NG ISA AT KALAHATING ORAS ANG MGA LALAKING FRUIT FLIES AT BINIGYAN LAMANG NG KONTING PAGKAIN.

KITANG KITA NG MGA EKSPERTO KUNG PAANO NAGAGALIT ANG MGA FRUIT FLIES AT GINAGAMIT NITO ANG KANYANG SARILING MGA PAKPAK PARA MANAKIT SA KAPWA FRUITFLIES.

Friday, October 06, 2006

Wild Bees Make Honeybees Better Pollinators

Up to a third of our food supply depends on pollination by domesticated honeybees, but the insects are up to five times more efficient when wild bees buzz the same fields, according to a study published Aug. 28 in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

"As honeybees become more scarce, it becomes more important to have better pollinators," said Sarah Greenleaf, a postdoctoral researcher at UC Davis and first author on the study.

As a graduate student at Princeton University, Greenleaf carried out a two-year study of honeybees used to pollinate sunflower crops on farms in Yolo County, Calif., near UC Davis.
Compared to honeybees, wild bees did not contribute much directly to crop pollination. But on farms where wild bees were abundant, honeybees were much more effective in pollinating flowers and generating seeds, Greenleaf found.

There appear to be two reasons for that. Male wild bees, probably looking for mates, will latch onto worker honeybees, which are sterile females, causing them to move from one flower to another. Secondly, female wild bees appear to "dive bomb" honeybees, forcing them to move. Frequent movement between flowers spreads pollen around more effectively.

Greenleaf and her co-author Claire Kremen, now a professor at UC Berkeley, calculated that wild bees contributed about $10 million of value to the $26-million sunflower industry alone.
All the fields in the study were conventionally farmed, but varied in their proximity to natural habitat, Greenleaf said.

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AGRI-INFO/OCTOBER 6, 2006



TITLE: WILD BEES MAKE HONEYBEES BETTER POLLINATORS


ALAM BA NINYO NA ANG MGA WILD BEES AY MALAKI ANG NAITUTULONG SA HONEYBEES PARA MAGING MAS EPEKTIBONG POLLINATORS?

ITO ANG LUMABAS SA PAG-AARAL NA GINAWA NG MGA EKSPERTO AT NALATHALA ANG KANILANG RESULTA NG PANANALIKSIK SA JOURNAL PROCEEDINGS NG NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES SA ESTADOS UNIDOS.

ANG GANITONG HAKBANG AY NAGLALAYONG MATUGUNAN ANG HALOS NAWAWALA NA NGAYONG HONEYBEES NA NAPAPAKINABANGAN NATIN SA POLLINATION NG MGA HALAMAN NA NAGSISILBING PAGKAIN NATIN.

AYON KAY SARAH GREENLEAF, POSTDOCTORAL RESEARCHER NG UC DAVIS, BATAY SA DALAWANG TAON NIYANG PAG-AARAL SA HONEYBEES, MAS KAPAKI-PAKINABANG TO SA POLLINATION NG MGA HALAMAN PARTIKULAR NG SUNFLOWER KUNG IHAHAMBING SA WILD BEES.

NGUNIT, NATUKLASAN NI GREENLEAF NA SA MGA LUGAR NA SAGANA SA WILD BEES AY MAS EPEKTIBO O KAPAKI-PAKINABANG ANG HONEYBEES SA POLLINATION NG MGA BULAKLAK AT GENERATON NG MGA SEEDS NG MGA HALAMAN.

DALAWA ANG NAKIKITANG DAHILAN: ANG LALAKING WILD BEES AY NAKIKIPAG-NIIG SA MGA STERILE HONEYBEES NA SIYANG DAHILAN PARA MAGING MASIPAG ITO AT PALIPAT-LIPAT NG BULAKLAK, AT PANGALAWA ANG BABAENG WILD BEES AY PALAGING NAGBABANTA SA MGA BABAENG HONEYBEES PARA MAPWERSA SILANG MAGPALIPAT-LIPAT NG LUGAR.

Thursday, October 05, 2006

High-class agricultural practice, an engine for rural progress – Panganiban

Agriculture Secretary Domingo F. Panganiban has urged for strong participation of agriculture sector in high-class agricultural practice in their operation that would transform free global trade into an engine for rural progress.

In his welcoming remarks, in the opening of 'Capacity Building on Good Agricultural Practices for Developing Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Economies' held in Pasig City, Panganiban stressed the need for comprehensive farm and fishery policies to ensure that our people will be able to profit from our competitive advantages.

"We want to provide our farmers and fishers the opportunity to compete in the global market through a good agricultural practice (GAP) that is people-centered and globally recognized," Panganiban said.Free trade and cooperation continues to drive much of the economic reforms now undertaken by my developing APEC nations, including the Philippines, he said.

But free international trade can only work if all nations possess the capacity to produce commodities that are equal to the standards of the open market, Panganiban added.For this, the DA has been promoting GAP on a more comprehensive scale, he added.

Our involvement in international cooperation toward this end is the establishment of the ASEAN GAP, which ASEAN senior agriculture and forestry officials endorsed in a special meeting held here three weeks ago, Panganiban said.

He said that "consumer lifestyles in the region and throughout the world are driving the demand for assurance that food is safe to eat, and is of the best possible quality.""Consumers also demand food that is produced in a manner that does not harm the environment, or jeopardize the safety and welfare of farmers, fishers and other workers in food production and trade," the secretary added.

With these valid demands, small farmers, fishers, and agribusiness firms are facing a big challenge in the developing countries of APEC, Panganiban said.

With system now in place, Panganiban is confident that in time, all these present efforts will combine to bring more global competitive Filipino commodities to the international market.

With this gathering, designed to facilitate a free and constructive exchange of view on GAP, it will help to strengthen the shared commitment by which the APEC continues to prosper, Panganiban said.


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AGRI-INFO/OCTOBER 5, 2006


TITLE: HIGH CLASS AGRICULTURAL PRACTICE, AN ENGINE FOR RURAL PROGRESS


ALAM BA NINYO ANG MAITUTURING NA SUSI PARA MATIYAK ANG KAUNLARAN SA MGA KANAYUNAN?

ITO AY ANG TINATAWAG NA HIGH-CLASS AGRICULTURAL PRACTICE SA HANAY NG MGA MAGSASAKA PARA MAGKAROON NG SAPAT NA PAGKAKATAON NA MAKALAHOK SA PANDAIGDIGANG KALAKALAN SA LARANGAN NG SAKAHAN.

SA KANYANG PAGSASALITA SA PAGBUBUKAS NG “CAPACITY BUILDING ON GOOD AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES FOR DEVELOPING ASIA-PACIFIC ECONOMIC COOPERATION ECONOMIES” BINIGYANG DIIN NI DA SECRETARY DING PANGANIBAN ANG PANGANGAILANGAN NG KUMPREHENSIBONG POLISIYA SA SAKAHAN AT PANGISDAAN.

ANG GANITONG MGA HAKBANG AY NAGLALAYONG MAKINABANG ANG ATING MGA KABABAYANG MAGSASAKA AT MANGINGISDA SA KABILA NG MATINDING KUMPETISYON SA KANILANG KABUHAYAN.

AYON SA KALIHIM, MAINAM NA MABIGYAN NG PAGKAKATAON ANG ATING MGA KABABAYAN SA LARANGAN NG PAGSASAKA NA MAKIPAG-KUMPETISYON SA GLOBAL MARKETSA PAMAMAGITAN NG MAGANDANG PAMAMARAAN NG PANSAKAHAN.

Wednesday, October 04, 2006

Guimaras farmers find other sources of income from DA

The fisherfolks and farmers affected in the oil spill in Guimaras have started getting alternative sources for livelihood to keep their lives going.

This was reported by Executive Director Jindra Linda L. Demeterio of Region Field Office 6 in Iloilo after the DA released P 2 million for the Guimaras Agricultural Assistance Projects.

In a report to Agriculture Secretary Domingo F. Panganiban, Demeterio said that the livelihood projects are certified rice seed subsidy, vegetable production and processing project, goat production, backyard fattening project, upgraded native chicken production and corn production.

In the rice seed subsidy, 100 bags of certified seeds and 550 bags of organic fertilizer were distributed to beneficiaries. A total of 100 fisherfolks and 550 farmers were assisted to an area of 650 hectares planted with rice. A total of 650 farmers were also trained for this purpose, it was reported.

For the vegetable production, a total of 250 organic fertilizer and 5,000 plastic bags of seeds were distributed including garden tools, covering 5 municipalities. In the report, 10 trainings were conducted, it was added.

A total of 60 goats were distributed with 20 beneficiaries and 102 beneficiaries received 102 hogs for their backyard hog project. The project includes feeds. For other 102 beneficiaries, 408 chickens were distributed with feeds.

In corn production, 244 bags of hybrid corn seeds were distributed with bio-N to an area of 244 hectares planted with corn. A total of 244 farmers were served by this project.

The RFU 6 also procured plastic ropes to help in the containment of oil spill in the area, Demeterio added.

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AGRI-INFO/OCTOBER 4, 2006


TITLE: GUIMARAS FARMERS FIND OTHER SOURCES OF INCOME FROM DA

ALAM BA NINYO NA TODONG TULONG NA ANG IPINAGKAKALOOB NGAYON NG DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SA MGA NAGING BIKTIMA NG OIL SPILL SA KARAGATAN NG GUIMARAS?

INIULAT MISMO NI EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR JINDRA F. PANGANIBAN NG REGION FIELD OFFICE 6 SA ILOILO KAY DA SECRETARY DOMING PANGANIBAN, NAGLAAN NA NG MGA LIVELIHOOD PROJECT ANG AHENSIYA SA MGA MANGINGISDANG DIREKTANG NAAPEKTUHAN NG OIL SPILL.

KABILANG SA MGA PROYEKTONG PANGKABUHAYAN NA ITO AY ANG CERTIFIED RICE SEED SUBSIDY, VEGETABLE PRODUCTION AND PROCESSING PROJECT, GOAT PRODUCTION, BACKYARD FATTENING PROJECT, UPGRADED NATIVE CHICKEN PRODUCTION AT CORN PRODUCTION.

SA RICE SUBSIDY, 100 BAG NG CERTIFIED SEEDS AT 550 BAGS NG ORGANIC FERTILIZER ANG NAIPAMAHAGI NA SA MGA KABABAYAN NATING MANGINGISDA SA GUIMARAS.

NASA KABUUANG 100 MANGINGISDA AT 550 MAGSASAKA ANG NATULUNGAN SA LUGAR NA MAY KABUUANG LAWAK NA 650 EKTARYANG PALAYAN.

SA PAGTATANIM NG MGA GULAY, NASA KABUUANG 250 BAG NG ORGANIC FERTILIZER AT 5000 PLASTIC BAG NG SEEDS ANG NAIPAMAHAGI BUKOD PA SA MGA GAMIT PAGSASAKA SA LIMANG MUNISIPALIDAD SA ISLANG PROBINSIYA

NASA 60 KAMBING NAMAN ANG NAIPAMAHAGI SA MAY 20 BENEPISYARYO HABANG 102 BENEPISYARYO NAMAN ANG TUMANGGAP NG 102 BABOY, AT IBA PANG 102 BENEPISYARYO ANG TUMANGGAP NG 408 NA MGA MANOK.

SA PRODUKSIYON NAMAN NG MAIS, NASA 244 BAG NG HYBRID CORN SEEDS AND NAIPAMAHAGI SA MAY 244 EKTARYANG MAISAN AT NASA 244 NA MGA MAGSASAKA ANG NAKINABANG DITO.

Tuesday, October 03, 2006

Bird Moms Manipulate Birth Order To Protect Sons

When marauding mites turn up in a house finch's nest, she shelters her sons from the blood-suckers by laying male eggs later than those containing their sturdier sisters, according to new research.

Making sure the vulnerable baby boys are exposed to mites for a shorter period allows both the sons and the daughters to survive long enough to leave the nest.

"Sons are more sensitive to the mites than daughters," said Alexander V. Badyaev of The University of Arizona in Tucson. "Mothers minimize sons' exposure to mites by laying male eggs later than female eggs. As a result, the males are in the nest fewer days."

Even so, the male chicks that grow up during mite season end up just as big as ones from the mite-free time of the year.

It's all mom's doing, Badyaev said.
Once breeding female finches are exposed to mites, their bodies make hormonal changes that affect the order of egg laying and accelerates the development of their sons while they're still in the egg.

"We've found a mechanism by which duration of growth can be adjusted to a changing risk of mortality," said Badyaev, a UA assistant professor of ecology and evolutionary biology. He added that this is the first documentation that maternal manipulation of both ovulation and growth influences the duration of development in birds.

Badyaev and his colleagues' article, "Sex-Biased Maternal Effects Reduce Ectoparasite Induced Mortality in a Passerine Bird," is scheduled to be published in the early online edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences the week of Sept. 18.

His co-authors are UA graduate students Terri L. Hamstra and Kevin P. Oh and UA research specialist Dana A. Acevedo Seaman. The David and Lucile Packard Foundation, the National Science Foundation and the Silliman Memorial Research Awards funded the research.

One of Badyaev's interests is figuring out how the various developmental periods of birds evolve and how birds can modify those developmental periods to maximize the survival of their young.
There's a trade-off between keeping the kids at home longer so they grow big and strong and getting them out of the nest quickly because nests are targets for predators and parasites, he said.

Since 2002, Badyaev, Oh and their colleagues have been intensively documenting the lives of a population of house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) on the UA campus.

Throughout the year, the researchers capture birds several times a week to band and measure them and to take DNA and hormone samples. During the breeding season, the researchers locate the nests, keep track of activity in the nest, follow nestling growth and development, and take DNA samples from the chicks.

The researchers have also been counting the numbers of mites on the birds and documented a seasonal pattern. When breeding starts in February, the mites are absent. As winter turns to spring, mites start showing up on the adult females, in their nests and on their nestlings. The exact timing depends on the year.
Mites can kill nestlings.
"When it is safer inside the nest than outside, then there's no need for young to leave the nest until growth is complete, but when mortality risk of staying in the nest is great, chicks need to complete their growth fast and get out as soon as they can," Badyaev said. "What should a mother do in the face of shifting mortality risk?"

"To leave the nests sooner and still survive outside of nests, the kids need to grow faster," Badyaev said. "But the mechanisms which regulate nestling growth in relation to changing mortality were not known."

So the researchers looked to see how finch moms changed their child-rearing strategy so as to always do best by their kids.

The birds lay one egg per day. To successfully raise baby finches in the presence of mites, the mothers altered the order in which male and female eggs were laid.

When mites were absent, the chances of any particular egg being male or female were even. But once mites came into the picture, the mothers laid female eggs first and male eggs last.
Males that grew during mite season did more of their development in the egg before hatching. Their mothers accelerated their sons' growth, both in the egg and after they hatched.
"Mothers essentially hid their sons in the eggs," Badyaev said.

It's remarkable that the fledglings have such similar morphology with or without mites, he said. "Mothers did that by modifying the order of laying of male and female eggs and the pattern of their growth."


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AGRI-INFO/OCTOBER 3, 2006



TITLE: BIRD MOMS MANIPULATE BIRTH ORDER TO PROTECT SONS


ALAM BA NINYO NA MAY MGA IBON NA MAS BINIBIGYAN NG MAHIGPIT NA PROTEKSIYON ANG MGA ANAK NILANG LALAKI KESA SA MGA BABAE?

TULAD NA LAMANG NG IBONG NA TINATAWAG NA HOUSE FINCH NA SAKA LAMANG INILALABAS ANG KANYANG ITLOG NA LALAKING IBON PAGKATAPOS NA MAISILANG ANG KANYANG MGA ITLOG NA BABAE.

ITO AY NAGLALAYONG MATIYAK NA MABIGYAN NG PROTEKSIYON ANG MGA LALAKING IBON LABAN SA ATAKE NG MITES NA KARANIWANG SUMISIPSIP SA DUGO NG KANILANG MGA BIKTIMA.

NATUKLASAN NI DR. ALEXANDER BADYAEV NG THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA SA TUCSON, ANG MGA LALAKING SISIW AY MAS SENSITIBO SA ATAKE NG MITES KESA SA MGA BABAENG SISIW.

KUNG PAANO NALALAMAN NG INAHING IBON NA MAY PANGANIB SA ATAKE NG MITES, OTOMATIKONG NAGBABAGO ANG KANILANG HORMONES NA SIYANG NAKAKAAPEKTO SA PAGKAKASUNUD-SUNOD NG PAGLULUWAL NG KANILANG ITLOG AT MAS MABILIS PA ANG PAGLAKI NG KANILANG MGA ANAK HABANG ITO AY NASA LOOB PA NG ITLOG.

Monday, October 02, 2006

High-Tech Microbes Could Bolster Production of Natural Sweetener

Genetically engineered bacteria that eat hemicellulose in corn fiber and other sources could set the stage for a new, biobased method of making xylitol, a mint-flavored sweetener used in chewing gum, toothpaste, mouthwash and other products.

Agricultural Research Service (ARS) chemist Badal Saha and collaborators developed the modified bacteria--patent-pending strains of Escherichia coli--through a cooperative agreement with zuChem, Inc., of Chicago, and the Biotechnology Research and Development Corporation in Peoria, Ill.Xylitol is produced naturally by many fruits and vegetables, and even to some degree by the human body.

It is used as a sugar substitute because it has one-third fewer calories, imparts a cool mint flavor, helps fight cavity-causing bacteria and can pass through the human gut without involving insulin.Commercial-scale quantities are derived primarily from birch-wood fibers that have been subjected to a combination of acids, high pressure and temperature, chemical catalysts, and a series of separation and purification steps.

But the process is expensive, and the resulting xylitol must be imported, primarily from Finland and China, notes Saha, who works at the ARS National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research in Peoria.

In studies at the center's Fermentation Biotechnology Research Unit, Saha and colleagues used an approach called metabolic pathway engineering to retool the enzyme-making machinery of E. coli bacteria so that they could convert two hemicellulose sugars--xylose and arabinose--into xylitol.

At the laboratory scale, the bacteria were kept inside special biofermentors and fed a "broth" of corn fibers or other hemicellulose sources. The xylitol they excreted was later purified from the broth as a white, crystalline powder.

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AGRI-INFO/OCTOBER 2, 2006


TITLE: MICROBES BOSLTER PRODUCTION OF NATURAL SWEETENER


ALAM BA NINYO NA NAGAWANG MAISAKATUPARAN NG MGA AGRI-EXPERT ANG GENETICALLY ENGINEERED BACTERIA NA MAGSISILBING NATURAL NA PAMPATAMIS KAPALIT NG ASUKAL?

ANG ENGINEERED BACTERIA NA ITO AY MAY KAKAYANANG KUMAIN NG HEMICELLULOSE SA CORN FIBER AT IBA PANG SOURCES PARA MAGKAROON NG BAGO, BIOBASED METHOD NG PAGGAWA NG “XYLITOL”- ANG MINT FLAVORED SWEETENER NA GINAGAMIT SA PRODUKSIYON NG CHEWING GUM, TOOTHPASTE, MOUTHWASH AT IBA PANG PRODUKTO.

PINANGUNAHAN NI ARS CHEMIST BADAL SAHA ANG ISANG GRUPO NG MGA SIYENTISTA PARA MAISAKATUPARAN ANG GENETIC ENGINEERING SA STRAIN NG ESCHERICHIA COLI SA PAKIKIPAGTULUNGAN NG MGA EKSPERTO MULA SA ZUCHEM INC NG CHICAGO AT BIOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION SA PEORIA, III.

ANG XYLITOL PARA SA ATING KABATIRAN AY NATURAL NA NAGAGAWA NG MARAMING PRUTAS AT GULAY AT MAGING NG SARLI NATING KATAWAN.

GINAGAMIT ITO BILANG SUBSTITUTE O PAMALIT DAHIL SA MERON ITONG ONE THIRD NA MAS KONTING CALORIES, NAGBABAHAGI ITO NG COOL MINT FLAVOR, NAKATUTULONG NG MALAKI SA TINATAWAG NA CAVITY-CAUSING BACTERIA AT HINDI NA NITO KAILANGAN ANG INSULIN PARA MASUNOG.